QUESTIONS: Scientific Management was the product of 19th Century industrial practices and has no relevance to the present day. Discuss. In the 19th century workers usually worked at a slow pace so scientific management was introduce by Frederick W. Taylor and this management can also be called Taylorism. The main purpose why scientific management was introduced was for organisations in the 19th century to improve their labour productivity. Frederick W. Taylor was the main person behind the scientific management and this management can be defining as method to improve efficiency. Other people who contributed to and developed scientific management were Frank Gilberth, Henry Gantt and Lillian Gilbert. Scientific management had principles and these were:
* Workers to be trained
* Workers should be scientifically selected to do specific job * Cooperation between workers and managers
* Management should take responsibilities for planning work for their workers Frederick W. Taylor’s scientific management had an influence on how businesses operated and also had influence on management practice in the 19th century; it also contributed to the study of management and organisation in area, including human relations, human resources management. In the scientific management, Taylor's theory consisted with the time and motion study and this involved him employing someone to work so he can study him to know how motion was used most of the time and the time it took to finish the job. After this study it came to conclusion that workers will find it more efficient when they are broken down to parts and also this showed that many of the workers were not well educated and unfit to make decisions and there’s a quotation said by Taylor which defines this “One of the very first requirements for a man who is fit to handle pig iron as a regular occupation is that he shall be so stupid and so phlegmatic that he more nearly resembles […] the ox… Therefore the workman…is unable to understand the real science of doing this class of work” From this study workers were scientifically selected to perform certain tasks as they were able to cope with the task that has been given to them. Taylor also calls that work should be processed in a standard way and this will be efficient for all the workers and efficiency will be only achieve by subdivision of labour, this meant that placing workers into small groups, specifying the work that should be done and how it should be done and the exact time it should be completed by. Example of an organisation that used put scientific management into practice in the 19th century was the Japanese mobile constructors in the 1970’s when they began to compete with their competitors; they used fundamentally improved manufacturing processes that consistently produced more that their competitors. Some organisations has tried the scientific management as we can see in George Ritzer book “The Mc’Donaldisation of Society” which illustrate the same study that Taylor has researched about ‘‘The time and Motion Study” this told workers precise cooking times for all products and temperature settings for all equipment…It specified that French fries be cut at nine-thirty-seconds thick…Grill men…were instructed to put hamburgers down on the grill moving left to right, creating six rows of six patties each” (Ritzer 2000, p. 38). McDonalds employed the scientific management in production and it is an example of an organisation employing scientific management in production. Within McDonald’s restaurants, uniformity is complete, in every branch of McDonalds is the same, as are the methods used to prepare food, clean floors, promote staff and lock up on closing? With this method used the McDonald’s they have the ability to supply standard food services throughout the world.(Peters and Waterman 1982, p. 173-174). Is been said that scientific management has no relevance this present but I can argue that it still...
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