Scientific Development

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Chapter 7
Scientific and Technological
INDIA has a long and distinguished tradition in science and technology from the ancient times to great achievements during this century; the latter half prior to independence has been related largely to pure research. At the time of independence, our scientific and technological infrastructure was neither strong nor organised as compared to the developed world. This had resulted in our being technologically dependent on the skills and expertise available in other countries. In the past four decades, an infrastructure and capability largely commensurate with meeting national needs has been created minimising our dependence on other countries. A range of industries from small to the most sophisticated has been established covering a wide range of utilities, services and goods. There is now a reservoir of expertise well acquainted with the most modern advances in basic and applied areas that is equipped to make choices between available technologies, to absorb readily new technologies and provide a framework for future national development. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE

Scientific and technological activities in India are carried out under a wide set-up consisting of Central government, State governments, higher educational sector, public and private sector industry and non-profit institutions/associations. These institutional structures, with their research laboratories, are the main contributors to research and development being carried out in the country. Notable among these are : the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR); Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR); Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). In addition, there are many departmental laboratories of various departments/ministries, viz., Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Electronics, Department of Space, Department of Ocean Development, Defence Research and Development Organisation, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Ministry of Non- Conventional Energy Sources and the Ministry of Science and Technology. Further, there are over 1,200 in-house research and development units in industrial undertakings supporting research in their respective industries. Many Indian Universities and Deemed Universities such as IITs also undertake substantial research and development work.

Technology Policy Statement (TPS) was formulated in 1983 with the basic objective of developing indigenous technology and ensuring efficient absorption Scientific and Technological Developments
and adaptation of imported technology appropriate to national priorities and availability of resources. It is aimed at attaining technical competence and self-reliance, reducing vulnerability particularly in strategic and critical areas and making maximum use of indigenous resources. The TPS also aims at using traditional skills and capabilities making them commercially competitive. Several other measures through technology-intervention are envisaged to optimise demand on energy and ensure harmony with the environment. With a view to strengthening the economy, structural reforms have been introduced through adoption of a new industrial policy which will have an important bearing on the programmes of development pertaining to science and technology. A Technology Policy is being formulated to provide focus on the development of indigenous technologies and to make India self-reliant and competitive in the technological field.

The Department of Science and Technology, was set-up in May 1971 with the objective of promoting research in the new areas and to play the role of a nodal department for organising, coordinating and promoting science and technology activities in the country. Over the years, the Department has evolved policy statements and guidelines, provided mechanisms for co-ordination in the areas of science and technology...
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