On May 18, 1974, India conducted her first nuclear test explosion at Pokhran, codenamed Operation Smiling Buddha. The ISRO was responsible for establishing the Thumba Equatorial launching station in Trivandrum, Kerala, where eminent scientists like Vikram Sarabhai and APJ Abdul Kalam, former Indian President, have worked. It also launched remote sensing satellites, developed India’s first satellite, Aryabhatta, and sent astronauts into space.
India was able to acquire nuclear reactor technology early on from western countries like the US and Canada. As of 2008, India has 17 atomic power plants in operation, generating 4,120 MW power. More are coming up. In 1981, began the Indian Antarctic program when the first Indian expedition left for Antarctica from Goa. India established a base, Dakshin Gangotri, to which missions were sent each year.
Among the Asian countries, India accounts for about 10% of the total expenditure on Research and Development (R&D). In the past five years the numbers of scientific publications in the country have grown by 45%. But compared to other developed countries, India is still way behind. India has only 140 researchers per 1, 000, 000 population while the figure is 4,651 in the US.
In 2002-2003, Indian investment in science and technology was US$ 3.7 billion whereas China’s was four times more. As for the US, it was 75 times more! Still,... [continues]
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