Science, Technology and Society
Science, technology and society (STS) is the study of how social, political, and cultural values affect scientific research and technological innovation, and how these, in turn, affect society, politics and culture. STS scholars are interested in a variety of problems including the relationships between scientific and technological innovations and society, and the directions and risks of science and technology. Science and technology continue to shape our society in profound ways. Entering the 21st century, our society is in need of well-educated individuals with a command of scientific and technical concepts. The sciences and engineering further require cultural, ethical, legal, and historical frameworks to critically assess the appropriate and far-sighted application of these new concepts and cutting-edge technologies. The Science, Technology, and Society Program (STS) provides an interdisciplinary approach to the social, historical, ethical, philosophical, legal, and policy implications of scientific research, engineering, health, and medicine. Due to their engagement with multiple sides of current scientific and technical issues, STS scholars are uniquely positioned to take a leading role in shaping society. For the University, STS provides a means of bridging academic disciplines and forging new initiatives across disciplinary boundaries. For our students, STS provides an opportunity to bridge disciplinary interests, expand research possibilities, and learn the analytical skills needed to be competitive in an increasingly globalizing market for the sciences and technology. The vital role of science in modern life is not overstated in view of today's world. Science and technology have profoundly influenced the course of human civilization. Science has provided us remarkable insights into the world we live in. The scientific revolutions of the 20th century have led to many technologies, which promise to herald wholly new eras in many fields, As we stand today at the beginning of a new century, we have to ensure fullest use of these developments for the well being of our people. Science and technology have been an integral part of Indian civilization and culture over the past several millennia. Few are aware that India was the fountainhead of important foundational scientific developments and approaches. These cover many great scientific discoveries and technological achievements in Mathematics, Astronomy, Architecture, Chemistry, Metallurgy, Medicine, Natural Philosophy and other areas. A great deal of this traveled outwards from India. Equally, India also assimilated scientific ideas and techniques from elsewhere, with open-mindedness and a rational attitude, characteristic of a scientific ethos. India's traditions have been founded on the principles of universal harmony, respect for all creations and an integrated holistic approach. This background is likely to provide valuable insights for future scientific advances. During the century prior to independence, there was an awakening of modem science in India through the efforts of a number of outstanding scientists. They were responsible for great scientific advances of the highest international caliber.
Improvements in techniques evolved as a result of scientific research bring about great increases in production in the different sectors of the economy. National resources are augmented by the substitution of cheap and abundant materials for those in scarce supplies and by finding uses for materials, which have remained un-utilized, prior to independence; very little attention was given to the problem of scientific and industrial research in India. A number of universities and institutes carried out research, mostly on fundamental aspects of science. Certain industries also had their own research organizations. However, industry depended, by and large, on foreign techniques and did not develop research...
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