Science Technology and Society

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Innovation - an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit adoption INVENTION
– devised by independent investors as well as by individuals or teams of workers in university, government or industrial facilities

Factors that help to explain invention in modern society:
a) external pressures by social and natural environment

b) motives of inventors and related decision makers

c) flexibility in the face of chance discoveries

Theories of the Nature of Invention
1) Payson Usher’s Theory-Cumulative Synthesis-
* Formalizes the individual act of inventive insight as “genetic sequence of 4 steps or phases. a)perception of a problem
b) setting of the stage
c)the occurrence of the critical act of insight
d) critical revision
2) Heroic Theory of Invention
* inventions are due to sudden breakthroughs by solitary individual geniuses

3) Trevor Pinch and Wiebe Bijker- Social Constructivist Approach * Study of science stress the role of social factors in the construction of supposedly purely naturalistic scientific phenomena Technogical Innovation

* Take the form of new or substantially modified technology-related products, processes and services(electronic fund transfer). These are the outcome of the creation or transformations of some or all of the ff: inventions, discoveries, ideas, data, analyses and body of knowledge * Set of actions that leads to actual adoption in practice of a device, machine, process or system Factors Influence the process of technological innovation:

* Market pull
* Competent in-house development expertise
* Product champion-individual or group that so commits itself and its prestige to the cause of a proposed innovation * Project champion- possess organizational and personal skills adequate to mobilize and motivate workers

Linear Model
Research development production marketing

Chain-Linked Model-S.J. Kline
>it starts...
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