Science Grade 10 Exam Review

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SCIENCE EXAM NOTES
Organ Systems
CELL
-Cell Membrane : surrounds the cytoplasm in the plant cell and surrounds the cell in the animal cell -Cell Wall : surrounds Cell
-Chloroplast : type of organelle in the plant cell ; Conducts photosynthesis -Golgi Apparatus : modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the cellular endoplasmic reticulum -Mitochondrion : produces energy

-Nucleus : regulates all cell activity
-Nucleolus : contains the DNA of a cell
-Vacuole : the storage area, stores good and bad things
CELL CYCLE
Define
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-Chromosome : Is an organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells -Chromatids : Is one of the two copies of DNA making up a duplicated chromosome, which are joined at their centromeres, for the process of cell division

Stages of Mitosis + Cell Division

1st : INTERPHASE
-Chromosomes are copies (# doubles)
- Chromosomes appear as threadlike coils (chromatin) at the start, but each chromosome and it’s copy (sister chromosome) change to sister chromatids at end of this phase 2nd : PROPHASE
-Mitosis begins (cell begins to divide)
-Centrioles (or poles) appear and begin to move to opposite ends of cell -Spindle fibers form between the poles
3rd : METAPHASE
-Chromatids (or pairs of chromosomes) attach to the spindle fibers 4th : ANAPHASE
-Chromatids (or pairs of chromosomes) separate and begin to move to opposite ends of the cell 5th: TELOPHASE
-Two new nuclei form
-Chromosomes appear as chromatin (threads rather than rods) -Mitosis ends
6th: CYTOKINESIS
-Cell membrane moves inward to create two daughter cells – each with its own nucleus with identical chromosomes

TISSUES

-Tissue : Any of the distinct types of material of which animals or plants are made, consisting of specialized cells and their products. Types of animal tissues = Muscular, Blood, Connective, Epithelial, Nerve Types of plant tissues in a leaf = Meristematic, Ground, Epidermal, Vascular Stomata : When the water evaporates that’s when the plant releases oxygen into the air ; Part of epidermal ; Exchanges substances

ORGAN

-Organ : an organized group of tissues that work together to perform a specific function Example : Heart, Liver, Stomach,

ORGAN SYSTEM

-Organ System : is a group of organs that work together to perform a certain task Examples in a human : The cardiovascular system : heart, blood vessels, blood

X-RAYS

-High energy radiation: usually penetrates materials such as skin and tissues but not metals and bones -Fluoroscopy : is a technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of organs and body tissue -Radiotherapy : is a procedure that uses X-rays to damage cancer cells in tumors. -Main disadvantage of X-rays is the possibility of damage to healthy cells, which can cause cancer.

CHEMISTRY

PERIODIC TABLE

Mendeleev’s arrangement of P-table is in the order of atomic mass -Horizontal rows are called periods and vertical columns are called families or groups Groups in P-table
Alkaline Metals (group 1)
Alkaline Earth Metals (group 2)
Halogens (group 17)
Nobel gases (group 18)
Number of protons and electrons in a valence shell
-Number of electrons = number of protons

ATOM

Protons = positive charge and are located inside the nucleus Electrons = negative charge and are located inside the nucleus Neutrons = no charge and are located inside the nucleus
The number of protons and electrons are same.
The atomic number is the same of protons and electrons in each atom.

IONIC COMPOUND

What is it?
Is a combination of a metal and non-metal.
How do you write its formula?
1)Write the metal first
2)Write the nonmetal
3)Cross the subscripts
4)Rewrite
Example : K2Br3
Metal: K (potassium)
Nonmetal: Br (Bromide)
Cross subscripts/ rewrite: K3Br2
How do you name it?
1)Name the metal...
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