SCIENCE EXAM NOTES
Cell Membrane : surrounds the cytoplasm in the plant cell and surrounds the cell in the animal cell -
Cell Wall : surrounds Cell
Chloroplast : type of organelle in the plant cell ; Conducts photosynthesis -
Golgi Apparatus : modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the cellular endoplasmic reticulum -
Mitochondrion : produces energy
Nucleus : regulates all cell activity
Nucleolus : contains the DNA of a cell
Vacuole : the storage area, stores good and bad things
Chromosome : Is an organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells -
Chromatids : Is one of the two copies of DNA making up a duplicated chromosome, which are joined at their centromeres, for the process of cell division
Stages of Mitosis + Cell Division
1st : INTERPHASE
Chromosomes are copies (# doubles)
Chromosomes appear as threadlike coils (chromatin) at the start, but each chromosome and it’s copy (sister chromosome) change to sister chromatids at end of this phase 2nd : PROPHASE
Mitosis begins (cell begins to divide)
Centrioles (or poles) appear and begin to move to opposite ends of cell -
Spindle fibers form between the poles
3rd : METAPHASE
Chromatids (or pairs of chromosomes) attach to the spindle fibers 4th : ANAPHASE
Chromatids (or pairs of chromosomes) separate and begin to move to opposite ends of the cell 5th: TELOPHASE
Two new nuclei form
Chromosomes appear as chromatin (threads rather than rods) -
Cell membrane moves inward to create two daughter cells – each with its own nucleus with identical chromosomes
Tissue : Any of the distinct types of material of which animals or plants are made, consisting of specialized cells and their products. Types of animal tissues = Muscular, Blood, Connective, Epithelial, Nerve Types of plant tissues in a leaf = Meristematic, Ground, Epidermal, Vascular Stomata : When the water evaporates that’s when the plant releases oxygen into the air ; Part of epidermal ; Exchanges substances
Organ : an organized group of tissues that work together to perform a specific function Example : Heart, Liver, Stomach,
Organ System : is a group of organs that work together to perform a certain task Examples in a human : The cardiovascular system : heart, blood vessels, blood
High energy radiation: usually penetrates materials such as skin and tissues but not metals and bones -
Fluoroscopy : is a technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of organs and body tissue -
Radiotherapy : is a procedure that uses X-rays to damage cancer cells in tumors. -
Main disadvantage of X-rays is the possibility of damage to healthy cells, which can cause cancer.
Mendeleev’s arrangement of P-table is in the order of atomic mass -
Horizontal rows are called periods and vertical columns are called families or groups Groups in P-table
Alkaline Metals (group 1)
Alkaline Earth Metals (group 2)
Halogens (group 17)
Nobel gases (group 18)
Number of protons and electrons in a valence shell
Number of electrons = number of protons
Protons = positive charge and are located inside the nucleus Electrons = negative charge and are located inside the nucleus Neutrons = no charge and are located inside the nucleus
The number of protons and electrons are same.
The atomic number is the same of protons and electrons in each atom.
What is it?
Is a combination of a metal and non-metal.
How do you write its formula?
Write the metal first
Write the nonmetal
Cross the subscripts
Example : K2Br3
Metal: K (potassium)
Nonmetal: Br (Bromide)
Cross subscripts/ rewrite: K3Br2
How do you name it?
Name the metal...
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