Science Fair 2012 - Review of Literature

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Review of Literature
The Effect of Jogging 804.672 meters on the Memory Abilities of 12 year-old Males By Zachariah Abueg

In this experiment, the researcher will test how mildly jogging 804.672 meters on a neighborhood sidewalk will affect the memory ability of a 12 year old male. This research will give the researcher background information on how jogging will affect a 12 year-old’s memory and hippocampus volume, as well as the brain itself. The results will help to validate that jogging will increasingly affect a 12 year-old’s memory ability from using a number grid test as the testing tool. The human memory is a process that involves a constant cycle of three phases. The foremost phrase in which memory occurs is [called] encoding. This involves receiving information and processing it (Bright, n.d., pg. 1) The brain encodes information for memory based on what one senses, how one emotionally feels, one’s movement, what one reads, and the meanings that things have to him/her. Encoding information relies on the brain’s working memory (Bright, n.d., pg. 1) – the memory system used in short-term memory for temporarily storing newly learned information (Storing Memory, 2008, pg. 1). This phrase is first and foremost in the memory process, because before information can be stored, it must be effectively encoded and processed into the brain (Ionascu, n.d., pg. 1). The next phase is storing the information into the many various areas in the brain (Bright, n.d., pg. 1). Though various areas of the brain aid in the memory process, the temporal lobe represents a major memory center. Within the temporal lobes, different hemispheres serve different storage functions (Ionascu, n.d., pg. 1). One’s memory storage depends on what kind of information he/she is trying to save. The brain uses short-term memory to learn something for quick retrieval. Information that uses and processes short-term memory is stored into the prefrontal lobe (Bright, n.d., pg. 1). When using long-term memory, however, one’s mind must create a specific system for encoding information. Some examples of encoding systems for long-term memory are visual recurrence and oral repetition (Bright, n.d., pg. 2) The final stage in which memory occurs is retrieval, when the brain tries to recall and derive stored information into one’s current thoughts (Bright, n.d., pg. 1). In her book, “A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests”, neuropsychologist Esther Strauss theorizes memory retrieval correlates to emotion, cues, and the methods the brain uses to organize information (Bright, n.d., pg. 2). The time and place where one encodes and processes information can affect long-term recall (Ionascu, n.d., pg. 2). Memory and cognition develop and process in the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex – or simply, cortex – is the confluence of gyri (gray matter) located on the outer portion of the cerebrum (Storing Memory, 2008, pg. 1). Yet this is not the only place memory works at (only developing and processing). Today, scientists know that memory does not happen in one particular place in the brain, but it is a brain-wide process. One’s memory consists of a group of systems that each have important roles in the memory process. As this process is in progress, these different systems work together to encode, store, and recall information (Mohs, Ph.D., 2007, pg. 1). The two hippocampi – a metropolis for memory and cognitive functions – are responsible for storing memory. In right-hand dominants, the left hippocampus is inclined to process verbal learning, and the right hippocampus thrives on non-verbal and spatial memory. Unfortunately, in left-hand dominants, hippocampi activity tends to be scattered and is less understood (Storing Memory, 2008, pg. 1). One molecule that plays an important role in brain health and functioning is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF is a type of growth factor that increases the injury resistance of a [brain] neuron, and...
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