1. In certain mollusks, cilia help to pass water currents over the gills 2. In echinoderms cilia helps to drive water through the water vascular system, (locomotion) 3. Cilia of the cells lining the respiratory tract of humans help to drive away the microbes and dust particles towards the nose or mouth 4. Cilia in the oviduct or fallopian tubes of human female transport ova Flagellum also helps in the movement in certain protozoan like euglena. Flagellum is a long, thread like cytoplasm projection. Flagellum in sperms also helps in the swimming movement. Muscular movement is the method used in most of the vertebrates, including man. Muscular movement is based on the use of muscle fibres. Muscle fibres have the unique property of ability to contract and relax, which exerts a force. This force is responsible for movement of body parts and locomotion. Human movement and locomotion also results from co-operation between muscles and bones. Hence study of both skeletal and muscular system in the human body becomes essential. There are three basic forms of locomotion found among terrestrial animals Legged - Moving by using appendages
Limbless locomotion - moving without legs, primarily using the body itself as a propulsive structure. Rolling - rotating the body over the substrate Contents [hide]
1 Legged locomotion,1.1 Posture,1.2 Number of legs,1.3 Leg and foot structure,1.4 Gaits 2 Limbless locomotion,2.1 Lower body surface,2.2 Type of movement,3 Rolling,3.1 Gravity assisted,3.2 Self-powered,4 Limits and extremes Legged locomotion
Movement on appendages is the most common form of terrestrial locomotion, it is the basic form of locomotion of two major groups with many terrestrial members, the vertebrates and the arthropods. Important aspects of legged locomotion are posture (the way the body is supported by the legs), the number of legs, and the functional structure of the leg and foot. There are also many gaits, ways of moving the legs to locomote, such as walking, running, or jumping. Posture
Hip joints and hindlimb postures.
Appendages can be used for movement in a number of ways. The posture, the way the body is supported by the legs, is an important aspect. Charig 1972 identified three main ways in which vertebrates support themselves with their legs - sprawling, semi-erect, and fully-erect. Some animals may use different postures in different circumstances, depending on the posture's mechanical advantages. Interestingly, there is no detectable difference in energetic cost between stances. The "sprawling" posture is the most primitive, and is the original limb posture from which the others evolved. The...