Science 30 - Chemistry Note

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Section 1.1: Products of Combustion Reactions
Cellular Respiration - the process by which cells convert the chemical ___________ energy stored in organic molecules (___________) into energy that cells can ___________.
Combustion - a chemical ___________ that occurs in the presence of oxygen and results in the release of ___________.
Combustion Reactions and Their Products:
Hydrocarbon – an organic ___________ containing only ___________ and ___________ atoms. Example; CH4(g).
Fuel - a substance that releases ___________ when involved in a chemical reaction (often ___________) or a ___________ reaction.

Combustion of Methane:
CH4(g)

+

Material
being
combusted

2O2(g)

combustion process
requires reaction with
oxygen



CO2(g)

+

2H2O(g)

Products of combustion
- determined by the atoms being combusted
- often are gases

The products of combustion are ___________ dioxide (CO2) and ___________ vapor (H2O(g)).
The ___________ (oxygen containing substance) are usually released into the atmosphere and are called ___________.

Balancing Chemical Equations:
Refer to page 156 – 157 for example problem and practice problem. Oxides of Carbon:
Biomass - ___________ matter or agricultural waste from recently ___________ sources used as a fuel or as an ___________ source. Burning ___________ will result in the production of carbon ___________ which is emitted into the ___________.



Levels of carbon ___________ are maintained by ___________
respiration and ___________.




Carbon dioxide is a ___________ gas in that it absorbs ___________ energy (heat) which heats up the Earth and has a major impact on ___________.
Carbon dioxide levels have ___________ since the industrial revolution due to combustion ___________.

Carbon Monoxide:



Carbon monoxide (CO(g)) is a common product of ___________.
It is produced when the amount of ___________ is limited during the reaction process. It is the product of an ___________ combustion of a carbon ___________ (i.e. from car emissions)

2CH4(g) + 3O2(g)  2CO(g) + 4H2O(g)
It is important to test the ___________ of carbon emissions in the atmosphere and also at home. Carbon monoxide, when ___________ in, competes with the ___________ to combine oxygen. Carbon monoxide binds more ___________ with hemoglobin than does oxygen. If the hemoglobin does not have ___________, the body ___________ as the cells do not get the oxygen they require.

Oxides of Sulfur:
Many natural resources that are burned as ___________ (coal, crude oil, tar sands, natural gas) contain ___________.


Natural ___________ contains sulfur in the form of hydrogen
___________ (H2S(g)).



Sour gas (natural gas that contains ___________ than 1% hydrogen sulfide) is ___________.



When natural gases are processed, this ___________ sulfide is often ___________. This ___________ the risk to humans and reduces the ___________ effects on pipelines.



In a gas well, some ___________ quality natural gas is released. This natural gas is ___________ which will convert the hydrogen sulfide to sulfur ___________ and sulfur trioxide ___________.

Flaring Process
H2S(g) + O2(g)  SO2(g) + H2O(g)
SO2(g) + O2(g)  SO3(g)

Oxides of Nitrogen:



___________ makes up 78% of the gases in the Earth’s ___________. If the ___________ of a combustion process in high enough (650 degrees Celsius), the nitrogen will ___________ and will produce nitrogen ___________ such as nitrogen ___________ (NO(g), and ___________ dioxide (NO2(g)) which are referred to as NOx compounds.

Production of NOx Compounds
N2(g) + O2(g)  2NO(g)
2NO(g) + O2(g)  2NO2(g)

Chemical Reactions in the Atmosphere:
Refer to page 161
Particulate Matter:
Asthma is often the result of ___________ levels of particulate matter in the atmosphere, either from ___________ or man-made sources. i.e. soot, smoke, ash, soil particles, pollen. Some of these are ___________ (i.e. cigarette...
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