Geology is the study of our planet: how it formed, the interior of the planet, what it is made of, such as water, mountains, and deserts. Plate Tectonics
Plate tectonics are used to describe the motions of the Earth’s lithosphere. The lithosphere is very thin but strong. It lies on top of the asthenosphere. It is constantly moving in an extremely slow state. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plate_tectonics Types of Plate Boundaries
Divergent Plate Boundaries—When two tectonic plates move away from each other. Convergent Plate Boundaries—When two plates move towards each other but one plate slides underneath. Transform Plate Boundary—When two plates slide alongside of one another. Earthquakes are a prime example of moving plate tectonics. When two plates rub together or, essentially, get stuck they cause tremors on the Earth’s surface. The San Andreas Fault is the most well-known fault. This occurs because the plates are sliding against each other. This is called transform plate boundary. In a year, there are over 10,000 earthquakes. Volcanoes are other example of tectonic plates in motion. When a volcano erupts, magma, or lava, comes up from the mantle through ridges in the Earth’s crust. Hawaiian Islands are an example of a volcano forming an island. This happens when lava seeps up through a ridge in the ocean floor and cools. Eventually over time you will have an island on the surface of the water. This will take millions of years to form though. Over time, plates that are constantly moving toward each other can create mountains. This is called convergent plate boundary. The Andes mountains are an example of this.