School Readiness and Later Achievement Review

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Duncan, G.J., Claessens, A., Huston, A.C., Pagani, L.S., Engel, M., Sexton, H., Dowsett, C.J., Magnuson, K., Klebanov, P., Feinstein, L., Brooks-Gunn, J., Duckworth, K., & Japel, C. (2007). School Readiness and Later Achievement. Developmental Psychology, 6, 1428-1446.

Purpose of the Study and Hypotheses
The researchers of this study wanted to estimate links between key elements of school readiness-school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills-and later school reading and math achievement. In particular, they wanted to find out what factors would and would not affect later education success in early childhood stages-pre- kindergarten through third grade. The hypothesis was that six areas would have an effect on a child's ability to develop advanced cognitive skill-reading, mathematics, attention, internalizing, externalizing, and social skills.

In this study, the researchers took six different data sets to study taking into account several different variables-the outcomes for reading and math, achievement for language/verbal ability, and math, attention skills/problems, socioemotional behaviors including externalizing and internalizing problems and social skills, prior cognitive/achievement, and prior attention/socioemotional behavior. Four of the data sets were collected from the United States, one from Montreal, Canada, and one from Great Britain. Many studies have been done to compare the relationships between achievement, attention, and behavior and later achievement, but there has not been any studies done to compare which can be emphasized to create a healthier academic career in adolescence and beyond.

Methods and Procedures
The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) uses a nationally representative sample of 21,260 children who were in kindergarten from 1998-1999 and collected data up to and including their third grade year. Data that was used was collected from direct achievement...
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