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1. Which of the following is NOT a common consequence of mutations that eliminate cell-cycle checkpoints? A. polyploidy
B. increased chromosomal translocations
C. increased DNA damage
E. Increased apoptosis
2. Attenuation is fine tuning of gene regulation of operons for enzymes associated with anabolic (chemical building) pathways, such as the Trp operon for tryptophan synthesis. Which of the following is NOT true about this system: A. Tryptophan is an amino acid
B. Attenuation does not occur in eukaryotes
C. During attenuation tryptophan molecules directly inhibit transcription of the Trp operon D. Tryptophan in the cell affects the rate of translation of tryptophan codons near the start of the Trp protein E. Presence of excess tryptophan results in premature termination of transcription.
3. The cell-cycle checkpoint that occurs during mitosis causes nuclear division to pause until A. DNA replication is complete.
B. all chromosomes have attached to the mitotic spindle.
C. cytokinesis occurs.
D. telophase begins.
E. chromosomes have fully condensed (shortened).
4. DNA replication occurs during ______ of the cell cycle. A. prophase
B. G1 phase
D. G2 phase
E. S phase
5. Three point crosses are used to determine:
A. The exact location of the chiasmata
B. The order of genes based on parentals and recombinants
C. The probability of independent assortment
D. The location of a single nucleotide polymorphism
E. Segregation patterns of ascospores
6. A _____________________ is a cis-acting DNA sequence that functions to regulate a cluster of two or more related genes. A. basal protein
C. locus control region
E. transcriptional activator
7. _______________ motifs are characteristic of DNA-binding domains in proteins such as repressors. A. carboxyl terminus
B. Medial cleft
D. fatty acid chains
8. rRNA molecules are transcribed by
A. DNA pol II.
B. DNA pol III.
C. RNA pol I.
D. RNA pol II.
E. RNA pol III.
9. The process by which a chemical from outside a cell initiates a change in gene expression within the cell is termed A. RNA interference.
B. global regulatory pathway.
C. cis action.
D. Signal transduction.
E. gene knockout.
10. In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase synthesizes _________ using a DNA template. A. dsRNA
B. the mature mRNA
D. the primary transcript, ssRNA
11. The __________________________ is the cis-acting DNA sequence that serves as the binding site for RNA polymerase. A. terminator
D. locus control region
12. The transition from transcriptional initiation to elongation involves A. binding of sigma factor.
B. binding of rho factor.
C. release of RNA polymerase from DNA.
D. binding of RNA polymerase to DNA.
E. release of sigma factor.
13. Random generation of overlapping insert fragments from large clones for the purpose of sequence analysis is termed A. digestion
E. primer walking
14. The critical step in the regulation of most bacterial genes occurs _____________. A. At transcription.
B. at release of mRNA.
C. during translation.
E. during intron splicing.
15. A common DNA structural feature that affects the initiation of transcription is: A. supercoiling of DNA.
B. looping of the DNA by the action of proteins.
C. chromosomal translocation.
D. coiling into Z-DNA.
16. Enhancers are:
A. Cis-acting factors that can regulate transcription of nearby genes. B. Trans-acting RNA sequences.
C. Proteins that regulate transcription.
D. Inhibitors of protein synthesis
E. Chemicals that promote cell...