Schizophrenia: Causes and Theological Classifications

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Schizophrenia Research Paper

Schizophrenia: Causes and Theological Classifications

Abstract
Over the past four decades researchers have made significant steps in understanding Schizophrenia. The focus of this paper is on the personal traits, symptoms, and treatments of this mysterious mental disorder. Some areas of development have been in the biological, psychological, and medical advances. While trying to establish a basic overview of the adjustments in the psychological world, careful consideration has been given to avoid any bias or judgmental ideas throughout the research process. An attempt to proclaim achievements and developments while remaining respectful in helping those who deal with these symptomatic expressions everyday is the ultimate and obvious goal. Current therapies (including medicines) provide control rather than cure. Medicines, along with psychological and social supports have proven to be quite successful in treating the advancements of schizophrenia. A closer look will reveal just a few of these accomplishments.

Introduction
The DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) is widely used by many countries as a category system for mental disorders. DSM is currently looking at ways to address several key issues concerning mental disorders such as schizophrenia. The DSM Checklist refers to schizophrenia as having, (1.) At least two of the following symptoms, each present for a significant portion of time during a one-month period: (a) Delusions. (b) Hallucinations. (c) Disorganized speech. (d) Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. (2.) Functioning markedly below the level achieved prior to onset. (3.) Continuous signs of the disturbance for at least six months, at least one month of which includes symptoms in full and active form (as opposed to attenuated form). Apart from the DSM system there are those professionals that are of the belief in a type I and type II system. Type I would be those who display the positive symptoms of delusions, hallucinations, and thought disorders. Type II would be those who display negative symptoms of flat affect, poverty of speech, and loss of volition. Type I patients seem to be the ones that are more likely to witness improvements (Comer, 2011, p. 346). One issue that faces the DSM is the term “split-mind” and whether it is appropriate for 21st century patients. Some countries, like Japan, have already replaced the term with more mental friendly terms, like, Togo Shitcho sho: “integration-dysregulation syndrome” (Van Os & Kapur, 2009). Patients seem to respond more favorably to this current term than the traditional one (Van Os & Kapur, 2009).

Historical Content
The word “schizophrenia” is derived from the Greek words skhizein meaning “to split” and phren meaning “mind,” which is unfortunately because this fuels the misconception that it is characterized by a “split personality” (Morgan & Morgan, 2010). It was not until the latter half of the 20th century that researchers had relatively noninvasive scientific tools for studying brain structure or function invivo. Consequently, in the first half of the 20th century, the literature on psychotic disorders was dominated by a brain-verses-mind distinction that fueled many futile debates about whether schizophrenia was a biological or a psychological disorder. In fact, prior to the 1970’s the field of psychiatry distinguished between organic and...
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