sbm school based management

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EDUCATION QUARTERLY, December 2008, 66 (1), 50-70
U.P. College of Education

School–Based Management:
Promoting Special Education Programs
in Local Schools
Ingrid R. Yap1

Mercedes P. Adorio
Fairfield School
Diliman, Quezon City

Kids World Integrated School,
North Greenhills, San Juan City


This is a qualitative study of 11 schools and six school divisions selected to expand and organize Special Education-Inclusive Education Program in the Third Elementary Education Program (TEEP) of the Department of Education in the Philippines. Schoolbased management (SBM) became the integrating framework of TEEP three years into the project. The study investigated how the local schools in selected pilot areas have used SBM to address the issues on (1) access to formal school, (2) quality of educational experiences, and (3) stakeholders’ participation in school activities that are relevant to the interests of children with special needs. Results show that most schools gauge access by the number of identified students with special needs. Quality is linked to the availability of SPED teachers and resources. Participation is associated with parents’ involvement in their special child’s individualized education plan. Keywords: special education, inclusive education, school-based management, school principal empowerment, stakeholder participation1

The Philippine government in its continuing effort to improve the quality of education in the country launched the Third Elementary Education Program (TEEP) in 1997. This nine year project was aimed at improving the quality of primary education by means of decentralizing governance at the elementary school level (Department of Education, 2006b). The passage of Republic Act 9155 in 2001 provided the Department of Education (DepEd) the legal mandate to reorganize governance in basic education. With such directive, school-based management (SBM) became the framework for making...
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