Part A: Multiple Choice
1. When organic molecules are joined together and a water molecule is removed, the reaction is called which of the following? A. Dehydration synthesis. B. Hydrogenation. C. Hydrolysis. D. Oxidation. What is a nucleotide composed of? A. Nitrogenous base, 6 carbon sugar and a phosphate group. B. Nitrogenous base, 5 carbon sugar and a phosphorus group. C. Nitrogenous base, 5 carbon sugar and a phosphate group. D. None of the above. Enzymes work as catalysts by doing which of the following? A. Decreasing the activation energy. B. Increasing the activation energy. C. Allostericallly controlling other proteins. D. Bypassing the need for a transition state to occur. Which of the following statements regarding cellular respiration is false? A. Pyruvate oxidation occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. B. Phosphofructokinase is an allosteric enzyme used to control the rate of aerobic respiration. C. 4 molecules of carbon dioxide are produced during the Krebs cycle. D. Substrate-level phosphorylation produces 2 ATP in glycolysis. Ethanol fermentation is the result of anaerobic respiration of what type of organism? A. Yeast. B. Bacteria. C. Plants. D. Animals. How many turns of the Calvin cycle are required to fix enough carbon dioxide to produce one glucose molecule? A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 6 Acetyl-CoA is the final product of which stage of cellular respiration? A. Pyruvate oxidation. B. ETC. C. Krebs cycle. D. Glycolysis. Which statement is true regarding C4 photosynthesis? A. It involves the stomata opening at night and closing in the day. B. It occurs in cool, moist environments. C. It uses PEP carboxylase to fix CO2 in the mesophyll cells. D. It occurs in cacti and pineapples. Which statement regarding cellular respiration is false? A. In the last stage of glycolysis, 2 molecules of PEP are converted to 2 molecules of pyruvate. B. In the first stage of glycolysis, ATP phosphorylates glucose to glucose 6-phosphate (G6P). C. 1 ATP is produced for every 4 protons that pass through ATP synthase. D. In the final step of the Krebs cycle, 1 molecule of malate is converted to 1 molecule of oxaloacetate.
15. Based on the light-response curve for C3 plants, the light-compensation point represents: A. The irradiance level at which the carbon fixation reactions reach a maximum rate. B. A low irradiance level that limits photosynthesis. C. The rate at which photosynthetic CO2 uptake equals the rate of respiratory CO2 evolution. D. The rate at which photosynthetic CO2 uptake is less than the rate of respiratory CO2 evolution. 10. Which statement regarding the structure of chloroplasts is true? A. Stacks of thylakoids form a column known as cristae. B. Lamellae connect adjacent grana. C. The photosynthetic membrane is the inner membrane of the chloroplast surrounded by the intermembrane space and the stroma. D. The stroma is a fluid found between the inner and outer membrane. 16. Which two nucleotides are considered to be pyramidines (single-ringed)? A. Adenine and thymine. B. Guanine and cytosine. C. Thymine and cytosine. D. Adenine and guanine. 17. Who was the first person to hypothesize that hereditary information is stored in the nucleus? A. Frederick Griffith. B. Joachim Hammerling. C. Rosalind Franklin. D. James Watson. 18. Which mutation occurs if one base is changed to a stop codon? A. Missense. B. Nonsense. C. Silent. D. Frameshift. 19. What did Beadle and Tatum propose? A. The one gene-one enzyme hypothesis. B. That DNA is the hereditary material. C. That DNA is a double helix. D. That the concentration of adenine is equal to the concentration of thymine, and the concentration of guannine is equal to the concentration of cytosine. 20. In reference to the trp operon, which statement is false regarding the trp repressor protein? A. The trp repressor-tryptophan complex binds to the operator to block transcription. B. When the levels of tryptophan...