Saturday Handout

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 17
  • Published : March 9, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
Focus Group
Interviewing
University of South Florida
College of Public Health

Notes

Richard A. Krueger
University of Minnesota
325 Vocational Technical Bldg.
1954 Buford Ave.
St. Paul, MN 55108
612-624-6754
rkrueger@umn.edu
June 2007

Focus Group Interviewing -- R. Krueger

Features of Focus Group Interviews
Participants





Carefully recruited
5 to 7 people per group
Similar types of people
Repeated groups

Environment




Comfortable
Circle seating
Tape recorded

Moderator

• Skillful in group discussions
• Uses pre-determined questions
• Establishes permissive environment

Analysis and Reporting
• Systematic analysis
• Verifiable procedures
• Appropriate reporting

2

3

Focus Group Interviewing -- R. Krueger

Types of Focus Group Studies
Characteristic

Market
Research

Academic

Non Profit & Public

Participatory

Where
popular?

Commercial
businesses

Universities,
government agencies,
foundations

Governments,
community groups,
foundations

Community groups,
schools,
foundations, local
government

Group size?

10-12 people

6-8 people

6-8 people

6-8 people

Who
moderates?

Professionals

Faculty, graduate
students or qualified
staff

Qualified staff and
occasional
volunteers with
special skills

Volunteers from the
community

Where are
focus groups
held?

Special rooms
with one-way
mirrors and
quality acoustics.

Public locations,
classrooms, sometimes
homes, or special
rooms with one-way
mirrors

Locations in the
community such as
schools, libraries,
etc.

Community
locations and
homes

How are data
captured?

Observers behind
mirrors, audio
and often video
recording

Field notes and audio
recording. Sometimes
video.

Field notes and
audio recording

Field notes and
audio recording

How are
results
analyzed?

Variable, but
often rapid first
impressions
given by
moderator /
analyst.
Sometimes
transcripts.

Usually transcripts
followed by rigorous
procedures

Usually abridged
transcripts and field
notes

Oral summaries at
conclusion, flip
charts, field notes,
listening to audio
tapes

Who gets
copies of
reports?

Only the sponsor.
Reports are
proprietary

Academics or public
officials. Results appear
in academic journals

Reports used within
the organization and
sent back to the
community.

Considerable effort
made to share
results with the
community

4

Focus Group Interviewing -- R. Krueger

Comparison of Various Group Processes
Focus Groups

Purpose

Composition
Size
Number of
groups
How data are
captured
Agenda

Analysis
Decision

Research,
evaluation,
needs assessment,
understanding
behavior,
satisfaction studies.
Homogeneous

Group Facilitation

Brainstorming

Decision making,
conflict resolution

Generate
ideas

Key parties,
opposing views

Varies, often
convenience
samples
Varies 3-12
1 or more

Subject Matter
Expert Panels
Obtain data on
occupations &
performance
expectations

Experts

6-8
3-4 with any one
audience

2-15
1 or more

Varies 3-10?
As many as needed

Field notes, flip
chart, memory,
audio tape
Focused questions
resulting in opinions,
attitudes, &
reflections
Compare & contrast
across groups
After analysis is
completed

Minutes or
proceedings

Field notes, flip chart

Field notes
Flip charts

Depends on the
purpose. Agenda can
be precise with rules
and protocol.
None

Free flowing

None

Factual,
questions &
answers, obtain
examples.
None

Decision made in
group

After listening is
completed

After listening is
completed

Focus Group Interviewing -- R. Krueger

Moderator Skills


Select the right moderator



Use an assistant moderator



Be mentally prepared



Use purposeful small talk



Make a smooth & snappy introduction



Use pauses...
tracking img