When water is heated to steam, they are in thermal contact, are said to be saturated. The water is called saturated because it cannot absorb more energy without changing into steam, and the steam is called saturated vapor because it cannot absorb any more energy unless temperature increase and it becomes superheated.
AIM: The aim of this laboratory is to find a mathematical model for the saturation curve for water/steam.
The apparatus used during the experiment are as follows;
* Marcet boiler
* Bunsen burner
* Gauge pressure
* A mercury-in-glass thermometer
* A stop watch
* I heated the boiler with both taps open. When boiling started, I closed the side tap. * I allowed the steam to escape from the top tap for one minute I closed the top tap. * I heated the boiler with all taps close and took readings of temperature for the selected pressure as it boils. * I turned off the gas once it got to 8 bars then took readings of temperature for selected pressures as it cools. * I read atmospheric pressure from laboratory barometer.
NB: At saturation, the pressure and temperature are uniquely related to each other; they are called the saturation pressure Ps and saturation temperature Ts and the relationship is called the saturation line.
TABLE: The results found are shown on the table below.
Measured quantities| Derived quantities|
Pressure| Temperature| Temperature| Pressure| Data to be plotted| Gauge| Rising| Falling| Average| Average| Absolute| | | bar| °C| °C| °C| K| bar| x-axis| y-axis|
0.5| 110.2| 110.1| 110.1| 383.2| 1.53| 2.60| 0.42|
1.0| 118.5| 118.9| 118.7| 391.9| 2.03| 2.55| 0.70|
1.5| 126.4| 126.6| 126.6| 399.7| 2.53| 2.50| 0.93|
2.0| 132.2| 132.5| 132.4| 405.5| 3.03| 2.46| 1.10|
2.5| 136.9| 137.4| 137.2| 410.3| 3.53| 2.43...