Satellite Communication in India

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  • Topic: Avalanche, Analog-to-digital converter, Comparator
  • Pages : 52 (16992 words )
  • Download(s) : 202
  • Published : September 8, 2012
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PROJECT REPORT
ON
MEASUREMENT OF CAPACITANCE AND TEMPERATURE OF SNOW LAYERS
FOR PREDICTION OF GLACIERS AND AVALANCHES
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the six months training
Undertaken at

“DEFENCE RESEARCH &DEVELOPMENT ORGANISATION”
(Snow And Avalanche Study Establishment)
Ministry Of Defence,Govt.of India

PRESENTED BY:
SOURAB SALOTRA
ECE-7TH SEMESTER
Univ.roll no - 6810407662
Department of Electronics and Electrical communication
Indo Global College Of Engineering,Abhipur
Mohali

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

When emotions are profound, words sometimes are not sufficient to express our thanks and gratitude. With this thought, I express my gratitude and indebtedness to all those people who have helped and provided the very much-needed enthusiasm and the consistent encouragement required. The present shape of this work has come forth after contribution from different spheres. I sincerely express my deep gratitude to Mr.Rajiv Kumar Das,Scientist-D (DRDO), Mr. R.K Garg,Scientiest-E (DRDO),Mr. Sanjeev kumar,Scientiest-E(CSIO) for their guidance, constructive suggestions, timely help, constant encouragement and supervision in each and every step throughput the work. Their inimitable support helped in channeling my efforts in proper directions. I wish to express my special thanks to Mr. Amod Kumar,Head-CSIO for using the lab facilities and resources at CSIO. Last but not the least; I also acknowledge the support from various researchers in the related field who helped me by clearing my doubts with their experience.

ABSTRACT

Measurement of capacitance & temperature is required for determining the physical & chemical composition of Snow ..The present study will be beneficial in the areas having mass destruction due to sudden breakdown of snow layers i.e. in Avalanche and Glacier prone areas. As a part of SASE(Snow and Avalanche Study) problem, I thought of making a project which will be very useful in combating the hazards of snow and avalanches not only to help the armed forces to fight and live in the mountains but also to accelerate the pace of socio-economic growth of the inaccessible snowbound hill regions. This project is based on the Integration of capacitance & temperature measurement devices . Various technologies such as embedded system,Various softwares such as Matlab,Orcad,Assembly language Programming is used in this project .For integration RS 232 is used . In addition to all this,AVR Atmega 8 is programmed . For capacitance measurement,a cylindrical capacitor is used . For Temperature measurement, thermocouple is used[Cold Junction Compensation] . With the use of this project,both the readings of temperature and capacitance can be determined and by taking into view the change of capacitance & temperature of snow with the melting snow, type of snow, the risc assessment can be done. Definitely this project will prove to be very beneficial economically as well as technically.

LIST OF FIGURES
TitlePage No.
Optical Fiber9
Propagation of Light through Fiber10
Fiber Optic Communication10
Propagation in Single Mode Fiber11
Propagation in Multimode Fiber11
Propagation in Graded Index Fiber12
The Cross-Section of A PIN Photodiode14
The Cross Section of APD15
Bubble Chart19
Aesthetic Design20
Flow chart for PCB layout27
Block Diagram of Power Supply30
Schematic of Power Supply31
Schematic of MFOE7132
Pin Configuration of LM74133
Schematic of Transmitter Circuit (V to F) 33 Pin Configuration of LM33135
PIN Photodiode 37 Receiver Circuit (F to V)...
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