Sampling Techniques and Data Analysis

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Polytechnic University of the Philippines
College of Economics, Finance and Politics
DEPARTMENT OF BANKING AND FINANCE
Sta. Mesa, Manila

SAMPLING TEACHNIQUES
and
DATA ANALYSIS

Submitted by:
Jayson A. Enabia
Rechelle Ann V. Elon
Lobelyne Elago
Monica Mae R. Flores
April Mariz Francisco
BBF 4-10n

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction1

Methods of Collecting Data

Interview method1

Questionnaire Method2

Empirical Observation Method4

Test Method5

Registration Method5

Mechanical Devices5

Sampling Techniques6

Random Sampling6

Systematic Sampling7

Purposive Sampling7

Quota Sampling8

Convenience Sampling8

Organization and Presentation of Data8

Data Analysis12

Introduction

There is no formula for selecting the best method to be used when generating data. It depends on the researcher’s design of the study, the type of data,the time allotment to complete the study and the researcher’s financial capacity. Data Collection is an important aspect of any type of research study. Inaccurate data collection can impact the results of a study and ultimately lead to invalid results.

METHODS OF COLLECTING DATA
INTERVIEW METHOD

This method of collecting data involves presentation or oral-verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral-verbal responses. There are different types of interview methods namely:

a. PERSONAL INTERVIEW
The interviewer asks questions generally in a face to face contact to the other person.

b. TELEPHONIC INTERVIEW
It is use when it is not possible to contact the respondent directly

c. STRUCTURED INTERVIEW
It follows a set of questions to be asked to the interviewer.

d. UNSTRUCTURED INTERVIEW
no predetermined questions are asked, in order to remain as open and adaptable as possible to the interviewee’s nature and priorities; during the interview the interviewer “goes with the flow”.

e. FOCUSED INTERVIEW
Attention is focused on the given experience of the respondent and its possible effects

f. CLINICAL INTERVIEW
It is concerned with broad underlying feelings or motivations with the course of individual’s life experience, rather than with the effects of the specific experience.

g. GROUP INTERVIEW
A group of individuals are being interviewed.

h. INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEW
An interviewer meets a single person and interviews him.

i. SELECTION INTERVIEW
It is done for the selection of people for certain jobs.

QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD

A questionnaire is a list of well-planned questions written on paper, which can be either personally administered or mailed by the researcher to the respondent using any of the following forms:

a. GUIDED-RESPONSE TYPE
The respondent is guided in making his or her reply.
Example:
1. Have you been convicted of any crime?
Yes______ No______. If your answer is yes, go to the next question and if no proceed to question number 3.

b. RECALL TYPE
Example:
a. age
b. sex
c. civil status
d. length of stay in a community

c. RECOGNITION TYPE
Example:
Which of the following figures is a square?

d. DICHOTOMOUS TYPE
Fixed-alternative question that can only be answered in one of the two indicated ways, such as 'A' or 'B', Agree or Disagree, True or False, Yes or No.

Example:
Are you in favor of REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH BILL?
YES______ NO______

e. MULTIPLE-CHOICE TYPE

A multiple-choice test usually has dozens of questions or "items." For each question, the test- taker is supposed to select the "best" choice among a set of four or five options. (They are sometime called "selected-response tests.")

Example:

What causes night and day?

A. The earth spins on its axis.
B. The earth moves around the sun.
C. Clouds block out the sun's...
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