Sampling and Research

Topics: Sampling, Scientific method, Sampling error Pages: 33 (8917 words) Published: March 12, 2013
RBUS2900 Course Summary

Lecture 2 – Scientific thinking and building blocks of research GOOD Research entails
Clear research objectives
Sound research design
Contain sufficient detail to allow another researcher to repeat the research Data should reveal its significance and use appropriate methods of analysis Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the data Should include the flaws in the design and their impact upon findings A good researcher reputation gains more respect and reliable findings The Scientific Research Method:

Encounter curiosity, doubt, barrier, suspicion or obstacle
Attempts to state the problem, ask questions, contemplate existing knowledge, gather facts Proposes hypothesis to explain the facts that are believed to be logically related to the problem Deduces outcomes or consequences of the hypothesis, attempts to discover if the results support the expectations Formulate several rival hypothesis

Devises and conducts an empirical test with various possible outcomes, each of which excludes one or more hypothesis Draw a conclusion based on acceptance and rejection of the hypothesis Feeds information back to the original problem modifying it according to the strength of the evidence Definitions

Theory – ‘Thinking’ about a problem. A set of systematically interrelated concepts, definitions and propositions that are advanced to explain and predict phenomena. Concepts – a bundle of meanings or characteristics associated with certain events, objects, conditions and situations. Created by classifying or categorizing objects or events that have common characteristics beyond the single observation. Eg. Customer satisfaction, height, gender, GDP, brand image. When an uncommon or new concept arises you borrow concepts from other disciplines or languages. When measuring something we must first conceptually define it. Constructs – an image or an idea specifically invented for a given research and theory-building purpose. Built by combining concepts. Eg. Brand equity = Brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality and brand loyalty. Operational definitions – ‘how the concept can be measured’. Stated in terms of specific testing criteria or operations. Must be able to count, measure, or in some other way gather the information through our senses. Eg. Firm size can be operationalised as ‘the log of number of employees’ Variables – ‘measures of our concepts or constructs’. An object or symbol to which values can be assigned. Can be observed and measured. Eg. Customer satisfaction (0 – 100)

Dependant (criterion) variables – represents the outcome in which a researcher is interested
Independent variables – causes or explains variance and outcomes in a dependant variable Moderating variables – a type of independent variable that is included because it is believed to have a significant contributory effect on the originally stated relationship. Changes the form of the relationship between an explanatory and dependant variable. Eg. A relationship between customer satisfaction and brand loyalty may be affected by the moderating variable ‘type of industry’. Mediating (intervening) variables – one through which an independent variable might influence a dependant variable. Eg. Independent variable is CSR, dependant variable is market value and there is a mediating variable of customer satisfaction. Extraneous variables – variables controlled or excluded from the study. Eg. Advertisings effect on sales with an extraneous variable of a major competitor becoming bankrupt. Hypothesis – ‘a claim’. Must be empirically testable and contain clear conceptual and operational definitions. Descriptive hypothesis – propositions that typically state the existence, size, form or distribution of some variable. Eg. The current unemployment rate is QLD exceeds 6% of the labour force. Relational hypothesis – statements that describe a relationship between two variables with respect to some case. Eg....
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Sampling (in Research) Essay
  • Sampling Method Used for Research Essay
  • Sampling And Data Collection In Research Paper
  • Statistic: Sampling and Research Design Essay
  • research Essay
  • Sampling and Data Collection in Research Essay
  • Essay on Research: Sampling and Study
  • research Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free