In statistics, a sample is a subset of a population. Typically, the population is very large, making a census or a complete enumeration of all the values in the population impractical or impossible. The sample represents a subset of manageable size. Samples are collected and statistics are calculated from the samples so that one can make inferences or extrapolations from the sample to the population. This process of collecting information from a sample is referred to as sampling.

A complete sample is a set of objects from a parent population that includes ALL such objects that satisfy a set of well-defined selection criteria. For example, a complete sample of Australian men taller than 2m would consist of a list of every Australian male taller than 2m. But it wouldn't include German males, or tall Australian females, or people shorter than 2m. So to compile such a complete sample requires a complete list of the parent population, including data on height, gender, and nationality for each member of that parent population. In the case of human populations, such a complete list is unlikely to exist, but such complete samples are often available in other disciplines, such as complete magnitude-limited samples of astronomical objects.

An unbiased sample is a set of objects chosen from a complete sample using a selection process that does not depend on the properties of the objects. For example, an unbiased sample of Australian men taller than 2m might consist of a randomly sampled subset of 1% of Australian males taller than 2m. But one chosen from the electoral register might not be unbiased since, for example, males aged under 18 will not be on the electoral register. In an astronomical context, an unbiased sample might consist of that fraction of a complete sample for which data are available, provided the data availability is not biased by individual source properties.

The best way to avoid a biased or unrepresentative sample is to select a random sample,...

.... , xn ) where each xi ∈ Si , Si being a ﬁnite set • The solution is based on ﬁnding one or more vectors that maximize, minimize, or satisfy a criterion function P (x1 , . . . , xn ) • Sorting an array a[n] – Find an n-tuple where the element xi is the index of ith smallest element in a – Criterion function is given by a[xi ] ≤ a[xi+1 ] for 1 ≤ i < n – Set Si is a ﬁnite set of integers in the range [1,n] • Brute force approach – Let the size of...

...Arrays
An array is a series of elements of the same type placed in contiguous memory locations that can be individually referenced by adding an index to a unique identifier.
That means that, for example, we can store 5 values of type int in an array without having to declare 5 different variables, each one with a different identifier. Instead of that, using an array we can store 5 different values of the same type, int for example, with a unique identifier.
For example, an array to...

...NATIONAL BOARD FOR HIGHER MATHEMATICS
AND
HOMI BHABHA CENTRE FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION
TATA INSTITUTE OF FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH
Pre-REGIONAL MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD, 2013
Mumbai Region
October 20, 2013
QUESTION PAPER SET: A
• There are 20 questions in this question paper. Each question carries 5 marks.
• Answer all questions.
• Time allotted: 2 hours.
QUESTIONS
1. What is the smallest positive integer k such that k(33 + 43 + 53 ) = an for some positive
integers a and n, with n > 1?...

...from cooperatives and from individual lenders
● Sample Size: A sample size of 50 respondents will be taken for this study out of the massive counts of clients of Microfinancing and the available allotted time and the confined location we took the survey. The 50 different borrowers from different financial providers who’s age lies between 20 years old up to 50 years will be our respondents. The sample will be taken in...

...cm, top 2.5 cm and bottom 4cm
Double spacing. Times new roman size 12 Chapter title (as in chapter one , two, three) in the center underlined.
Remember to put table of contents,
1.1 Background of the study
Respondents – (From your journals)
Sample –
Location –
DV – (Consider as Title too)
IV –
IV –
IV –
Before ending this part write the following paragraph
“Therefore, the purpose of this study aims to explore the TITLE among the...

...5:16 PM Page 22-1
CHAPTER
Sample Survey
CONTENTS
STATISTICS IN PRACTICE: DUKE
ENERGY
22.1 TERMINOLOGY USED
IN SAMPLE SURVEYS
22.2 TYPES OF SURVEYS AND
SAMPLING METHODS
22.3 SURVEY ERRORS
Nonsampling Error
Sampling Error
22.4 SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING
Population Mean
Population Total
Population Proportion
Determining the Sample Size
22.5 STRATIFIED SIMPLE
RANDOM SAMPLING
Population Mean
Population Total
Population Proportion...

...population, or universe, is the entire set people data or things that is the subject of exploration.
A census involves obtaining information, not from a sample, but rather from the entire population or universe.
A sample (as opposed sampling) is a subset of the population/universe.
For Marketing Research purposes, sampling usually involves people, not data or things.
Sampling Plans are strategies and mechanics for selecting members of the...

...associated with a particular set of paradigmatic assumptions that can be used to conduct research.
(O’Leary, 2004:85).
Research Design
The researchers used quantitative research design which is an objective, and a systematic process for obtaining information about the laser light activated alarm. The researches used this kind of research design to test past theories about the efficiency, effectivity and usefulness of the laser light activated alarm.
Determination of...