Sample of Chapter 2 of an Investigatory Project (Steam-Powered Toy Car)

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Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Introduction
This chapter indicates the ideas, also the history, relevant to the experiment to provide information and further elaborate different standpoints that were the foundation of the proposed study, also on the background study of the different methods and concepts used by other researchers that applies to the present study.

In order to develop new method and procedures, careful review of literature and studies must be done for the development of the study. The main purpose of this chapter is to identify and review theories on steam engine and to identify the deficiencies of those theories.

Related Literature
In general usage, the term ‘steam’ is the invisible vapor into which water is converted when it boils. On the contrary, it is the cloud of water droplets formed by the partial condensation of this vapor as it is cooled. [1] Steam is the technical term for ‘water vapor’, the gaseous phase of water. Since it is a vapor, it is logical that the density of steam is much less than that of water because the steam molecules are further apart from one another. The space immediately above the water surface thus becomes filled with less dense steam molecules.

Water vapor that includes water droplets is described as wet steam. As wet steam is heated further, the droplets evaporate, and at a high enough temperature (which depends on the pressure) all of the water evaporates and the system is in vapor-liquid equilibrium. [2]

Steam has many uses. In agriculture, it is used for soil sterilization to avoid the use of harmful chemical agents and increase soil health. The steam is used to sterilize the soil in open fields and/or greenhouses. Pests of plant cultures such as weeds, bacteria, fungi and viruses are killed through induced hot steam which causes their cell structure to physically degenerate. Biologically, the method is considered a partial disinfection. It also has a large contribution of making our lives better at home: for cooking vegetables, steam cleaning of fabric and carpets, and heating buildings. In each case, water is heated in a boiler, and the steam carries the energy to a target object. While about 90% of all electricity is generated using steam as the working fluid, nearly all by steam turbines. [3] In electric generation, steam is typically condensed at the end of its expansion cycle, and returned to the boiler for re-use. However in cogeneration, steam is piped into buildings through a district heating system to provide heat energy after its use in the electric generation cycle. The world's biggest steam generation system is the New York City steam system which pumps steam into 100,000 buildings in Manhattan from seven cogeneration plants.[4] In other industrial applications steam is used for energy storage, which is introduced and extracted by heat transfer, usually through pipes. Steam is a capacious reservoir for thermal energy because of water's high heat of vaporization. Steam is also an effective lifting gas, providing approximately 60% as much lift as helium and twice as much as hot air. It is not flammable, unlike hydrogen, and is cheap and abundant, unlike helium. The required heat, however, leads to condensation problems and requires an insulated envelope. There are many examples in which steam is used. It is used for piping in utility lines. It is also used in jacketing and tracing of piping to maintain the uniform temperature in pipelines and vessels. Steam is used in the process of wood bending, killing insects and increasing plasticity. An autoclave, which uses steam under pressure, is used in microbiology laboratories and similar environments for sterilization. Steam is used to accentuate drying especially in prefabricates. It is also used in cleaning of fibers, sometimes prior to painting. Other examples are already mentioned while tackling steam’s uses. Despite of all its uses, steam can also be dangerous. A steam...
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