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3.21 The Differential Effects of monetary & Non Monetary promotions on Brand Knowledge 3.22 Sales promotion and Brand Image 3.23 Sales Promotion and Branding 3.24 Short and Long Term effects of Sales Promotions 3.25 Price Sensitivity 3.26 Sales Promotion in relation to advertising 3.27 Conclusion 3.28 References
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Chapter 3 Literature Review
Promotion & Consumption:
Does consumption respond to promotion? Many studies have focused on the effects of promotion on brand switching, purchase quantity, and stockpiling and have documented that promotion makes consumers switch brands and purchase earlier or more. The consumers‘ consumption decision has long been ignored, and it remains unclear how promotion affects consumption (Blattberg et al. 1995). Conventional choice models cannot be used to address this issue because many of these models assume constant consumption rates over time (usually defined as the total purchases over the entire sample periods divided by the number of time periods). While this assumption can be appropriate for some product categories such as detergent and diapers, it might not hold for many other product categories, such as packaged tuna, candy, orange juice, or yogurt. For these categories, promotion can actually stimulate consumption in addition to causing brand switching and stockpiling. Thus, for product categories with a varying consumption rate, it is critical to recognize the responsiveness of consumption to promotion in order to measure the effectiveness of promotion on sales more precisely
Emerging literature in behavioural and economic theory has provided supporting evidence that consumption for some product categories responds to promotion. Using an experimental approach, Wansink (1996) establishes that significant holding costs pressure consumers to consume more of the product. Wansink and Deshpande (1994) show that when the product is perceived as widely substitutable, consumers will consume more of it in place of its close substitutes. They also show that higher perishability increases consumption rates. Adopting scarcity theory, Folkes et al. (1993) show that consumers curb consumption of products when supply is limited because they perceive smaller quantities as more valuable. Chandon and Wansink (2002) show that stockpiling increases consumption of high convenience products
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more than that of low-convenience products. In an analytical study, Assuncao and Meyer (1993) show that consumption is an endogenous decision variable driven by promotion and promotion-induced stockpiling resulting from forward-looking behaviour.
There are some recent empirical papers addressing the promotion effect on consumer stockpiling behaviour under price or promotion uncertainty. Erdem and Keane (1996) and Gonul and Srinivasan (1996) establish that consumers are forward looking. Erdem et al. (2003) explicitly model consumers‘ expectations about future prices with an exogenous consumption rate. In their model, consumers form future price expectations and decide when, what, and how...