Sales of Goods Act 1903

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The Chernobyl disaster (locally Катастрофа Чернобыля, Chornobyl Catastrophe) was a nuclear accident[->0] that occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant[->1] in Ukraine[->2] (officially Ukrainian SSR[->3]), which was under the direct jurisdiction of the central Moscow[->4]'s authorities. An explosion and fire released large quantities of radioactive contamination into the atmosphere, which spread over much of Western USSR and Europe. It is considered the worst nuclear power[->5] plant accident in history, and is one of only two classified as a level 7 event on the International Nuclear Event Scale[->6] (the other being the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster[->7]).[1] The battle to contain the contamination and avert a greater catastrophe ultimately involved over 500,000 workers and cost an estimated 18 billion rubles[->8], crippling the Soviet economy.[2] The disaster began during a systems test on Saturday, 26 April 1986 at reactor number four of the Chernobyl plant, which is near the city of Prypiat[->9] and within a close proximity to the administrative border with Belarus[->10] and Dnieper[->11] river. There was a sudden power output surge, and when an emergency shutdown was attempted, a more extreme spike in power output occurred, which led to a reactor vessel rupture and a series of explosions[->12]. These events exposed the graphite[->13] moderator[->14] of the reactor to air, causing it to ignite.[3] The resulting fire sent a plume of highly radioactive smoke fallout[->15] into the atmosphere and over an extensive geographical area, including Pripyat. The plume drifted over large parts of the western Soviet Union[->16] and Europe[->17]. From 1986 to 2000, 350,400 people were evacuated and resettled from the most severely contaminated areas of Belarus[->18], Russia[->19], and Ukraine[->20].[4]HYPERLINK \l "cite_note-4"[5] According to official post-Soviet data,[6]HYPERLINK \l "cite_note-IAEA-6"[7] about 60% of the fallout[->21] landed in Belarus[->22]. The accident raised concerns about the safety[->23] of the Soviet nuclear power industry, as well as nuclear power in general, slowing its expansion for a number of years and forcing the Soviet government to become less secretive about its procedures.[8]HYPERLINK \l "cite_note-Kagarlitsky-8"[notes 1] Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus have been burdened with the continuing and substantial decontamination[->24] and health care costs of the Chernobyl accident. A report of the International Atomic Energy Agency,[7] examines the environmental consequences of the accident. Estimates of the number of deaths potentially resulting from the accident vary enormously: Thirty one deaths are directly attributed to the accident[->25], all among the reactor staff and emergency workers.[9] A UNSCEAR[->26] report places the total confirmed deaths from radiation at 64 as of 2008. The World Health Organization[->27] (WHO) suggests it could reach 4,000.[10] A 2006 report[->28] predicted 30,000 to 60,000 cancer deaths as a result of Chernobyl fallout.[11] A Greenpeace[->29] report puts this figure at 200,000 or more.[12] A Russian publication, Chernobyl[->30], concludes that 985,000 excess cancer deaths occurred between 1986 and 2004 as a result of radioactive contamination.[13] Contents[hide] ·1 Accident ·1.1 The attempted experiment 1.2 Conditions prior to the accident 1.3 Experiment and explosion ·1.3.1 Radiation levels 1.3.2 Plant layout 1.3.3 Individual involvement 1.3.4 Initial deaths and survivors ·1.4 Immediate crisis management ·1.4.1 Radiation levels 1.4.2 Fire containment ·1.4.2.1 Timeline ·1.4.3 Evacuation developments 1.4.4 Steam explosion risk 1.4.5 Debris removal·2 Causes ·2.1 Operator error initially faulted 2.2 Operating instructions and design deficiencies found·3 Effects ·3.1 International spread of radioactive substances 3.2...
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