Safety on Water Refilling Station

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1. Abstract
This study tackles the safeties of processes used by water refilling stations in the Philippines, specifically on the National Capital Region, on the purified water it sells to its customers. The study focuses on the processes the water refilling stations implements to purify the water from its concessionaires not in the working place of water refilling stations. The group chose to research on this topic since nowadays, as the demand for cleaner water becomes higher, the price of household water purifiers and bottled water has become prohibitive. Water refilling stations managed by private entrepreneurs offer a cheaper and more convenient solution to the public’s drinking water needs than bottled water or the use of household filters. The demand at the water refilling stations - water stores that sell purified water is now increasing. The quality of purified water conforms to the national standards for drinking water and is even better than the quality of water produce by traditional water supply systems in terms of removed impurities.

At present, about 3,000 water refilling stations have proliferated nationwide. They sell purified water of comparable quality with bottled water at a lower price. For example, the current price per gallon of refilled purified water in Metro Manila ranges from P 50 to P 120 per 5-gallon container or about P 2.50 to P 6.00 per liter while the bottled water is sold at P 12.00 to P 25.00 per liter. Household filters, on the other hand, cost P 5,000 to P 25,000 per unit. In Metro Manila, most of the water refilling stations is connected to the pipes of two concessionaires: Maynilad Water Company or Manila Water Company for their source of raw water while in other areas they opt to use private deep wells. The “potable water” supplied by the providers is then further purified by utilizing a combination of water treatment equipment, such as sediment filters, carbon filters, water softeners, reverse osmosis membranes, ultra-violet lamps, and ozone generators. Typical water refilling stations can produce 3,000 to 12,000 litres of purified water per day. In previous years, most of the people were bringing a container to a water refilling station to buy purified water. Nowadays, because of convenience on the part of the consumers, purified water in 5-gallon (22.7 litres) containers is delivered by the station directly to the people’s home. Aqua Sure, a water refilling station in Metro Manila, can deliver 5,500 gallons (25,000 litres) a day to its 8,000 household client.

2. Introduction
3.1. Problem Statement

The proponents want to know how dirty water is being processed in the water station, what processes does the water goes through, what is the quality of the water being produced and how safe it is to drink that water after.

3.2. Significance

The study will:
* determine the physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of the product water produced * determine if the water produced is potable
* assess the current guidelines used for evaluating and monitoring the quality of the water produced * provide basis for decision making and strategy for regulation and monitoring of water stations to ensure a continuous production of quality and safe drinking water

3.3. Review of Related Literature
Water is the only substance found on earth in three forms solid, liquid, and gas. It regulates the earth’s temperature. Drinking water or potable water is water safe enough to be consumed by humans or used with low risk of immediate or long term harm. In most developed countries, the water supplied to households, commerce and industry meets drinking water standards, even though only a very small proportion is actually consumed or used in food preparation. Typical uses include toilet flushing, washing and landscape irrigation. It also regulates the temperature of the human body, carries nutrients and oxygen to cells, cushions joints, protects...
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