Safeguarding Theories of Abuse

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P2 – Describe four theoretical models of child abuse
M1-Compare four theoretical models of child abuse
D1 – Evaluate four theoretical models of possible child abuse The aim of this assignment is to enable learners to understand the theoretical models of child abuse and consider the implications of each model. There are many theories about why people abuse children and who are more likely to abuse. These models aren’t rules or laws and they may have flaws. I will be comparing and writing about these flaws and also where the models have a point and backing these up with cases of child abuse which have been in the media. The models that I will be describing, comparing and evaluating are the Feminist Model, the Social learning theory, Contextual and the Medical Model of abuse. I will also be talking about the attachment theory. Firstly, the Feminist model. The feminist model of abuse explores an imbalance of power between men and women in society, and believes that the adult male power is responsible for abuse. It also says that men spend so little time with their children that it also amounts to neglect. This model stems from the historical idea that men are the main bread winners of the family, and that they therefore hold the decision making power which leads to intimate partner violence. This is then believed to directly or indirectly lead to the abuse of children. An example of this could be the Josef Fritzl case. Josef Fritzl is an Austrian man who was imprisoned in 2009 for locking his eldest daughter in the cellar, raping her and bearing 7 children from her. The police were alerted after 24 years of these goings on, as his daughters eldest child became severely ill, and his daughter persuaded him to take her to the hospital, where the doctors immediately knew something was wrong and called the police. When being questioned about these acts, his wife said that she had ‘had no idea’ that any of this was going on, and was devastated to hear of her husband's crimes. Police said that they were told by his other children that he had always been an "authoritarian and domineering father" and was controlling towards his wife. In addition to this, his former tenants who rented apartments in their house also described him as a strict father, and said his wife deferred to him in any decision-making. This gives proof to the idea that, being the main bread winner of the family, Fritzl had the right to the decision making in his family. On the other hand, there are also many cases of child abuse where the mother is the abuser. For example, the case of Khyra Ishaq. Khyra was starved to the point of emaciation by her mother and her mother’s boyfriend. It is reported that Khyra was refused food and was prevented from going into the kitchen by a lock on the door. When being investigated, the police reported that there was no diminished responsibility, as her mother tried to claim, (she said her boyfriend pressured her) as the first query from Khyra’s school was reported shortly before her boyfriend came onto the scene. Her mother also took Khyra out of school to ‘home school’ her after her teachers voiced their concerns. Detective Inspector Sean Russell of West Midlands Police, who led the investigation, said he believed Khyra had been kept a virtual prisoner in an upstairs room. “The defendants had created a situation in which the children, who were being educated at home, had been kept away from their extended family, friends and the outside world," he said. Consequentially, this disproves the theory that only men abuse women and children due to being ‘dominant’ over them. Secondly, the social learning theory. This theory looks at the children’s surroundings, such as the people in them and the situations in which the children are exposed to leading to abuse. This can include; The live model – in which an actual person is demonstrating the behaviour, Verbal instruction – in which an individual describes the desired behaviour in...
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