Saani Awan

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Computer Architecture and Organization
Miles Murdocca and Vincent Heuring

Chapter 1 – Introduction

Computer Architecture and Organization by M. Murdocca and V. Heuring

© 2007 M. Murdocca and V. Heuring

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Chapter Contents
1.1 A Brief History of Computing 1.2 The Von Neumann Model 1.3 The System Bus Model 1.4 Levels of Machines 1.5 A Typical Computer System 1.7 Organization of the Book 1.8 Case Study: What Happened to Supercomputers?

Computer Architecture and Organization by M. Murdocca and V. Heuring

© 2007 M. Murdocca and V. Heuring

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Some Definitions
• Computer architecture deals with the functional behavior of a computer system as viewed by a programmer (like the size of a data type – 32 bits to an integer). • Computer organization deals with structural relationships that are not visible to the programmer (like clock frequency or the size of the physical memory). • There is a concept of levels in computer architecture. The basic idea is that there are many levels at which a computer can be considered, from the highest level, where the user is running programs, to the lowest level, consisting of transistors and wires.

Computer Architecture and Organization by M. Murdocca and V. Heuring

© 2007 M. Murdocca and V. Heuring

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Wolf Radius Bone
• Wolf radius bone ca. 25,000–30,000 B.C. showing 55 cuts in groups of five, suggesting a rudimentary form of multiplication or division.

(Source: Illustrated London News, October 2, 1937.)

Computer Architecture and Organization by M. Murdocca and V. Heuring

© 2007 M. Murdocca and V. Heuring

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Tally Sticks
• Original wooden tally sticks from Westminster, England, ca. 1250–1275 A.D.

(© SSPL/The ImageWorks.)

Computer Architecture and Organization by M. Murdocca and V. Heuring

© 2007 M. Murdocca and V. Heuring

1-6

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Chinese Abacus
• Representation of 39,017 on a Chinese abacus.

Computer Architecture and Organization by M. Murdocca and V. Heuring

© 2007 M. Murdocca and V. Heuring

1-7

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Cylinder Music Box
• Victorian Swiss cylinder music box, dated 1862.

(Source: http://www.liveauctioneers.com/auctions/ebay/497199.html.) Computer Architecture and Organization by M. Murdocca and V. Heuring © 2007 M. Murdocca and V. Heuring

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Pascal’s Calculating Machine
• Performs basic arithmetic operations (early to mid 1600’s). Does not have what may be considered the basic parts of a computer.

(Source: IBM Archives photograph.)

Computer Architecture and Organization by M. Murdocca and V. Heuring

© 2007 M. Murdocca and V. Heuring

1-9

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Babbage’s Difference Engine #1
• Working portion of Babbage’s Difference Engine No. 1, which is the first known automatic calculator.

(© SSPL/The ImageWorks.)
Computer Architecture and Organization by M. Murdocca and V. Heuring © 2007 M. Murdocca and V. Heuring

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

The Jacquard Pattern Weaving Loom
• The Jacquard pattern weaving loom (ca. 1804).

(Source: The Deutsches Museum.)

Computer Architecture and Organization by M. Murdocca and V. Heuring

© 2007 M. Murdocca and V. Heuring

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Enigma
• Siemens Halkse T-52 Sturgeon (Enigma) cipher machine.

(Photo and copy courtesy John Alexander, G7GCK Leicester, England.) Computer Architecture and Organization by M. Murdocca and V. Heuring © 2007 M. Murdocca and V. Heuring

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Colossus
• The Colossus (ca. 1944).

(Source: http://www.turing.org.uk/turing/scrapbook/electronic.html.) Computer Architecture and Organization by M. Murdocca and V. Heuring © 2007 M. Murdocca and V. Heuring

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

The ENIAC...
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