BSHRM-3DJanuary 30, 2013
History of Russian Cuisine
Significant years and events:
* Russian cuisine dates back to the 10th century. Old Russian cuisine became really diverse by the 15th century. It was influenced by natural and geographical conditions. The abundance of rivers, lakes and forests contributed to the appearance of dishes made from fish, game, mushrooms and berries. * 2000B.C Slavic tribes inhabited Russia, they are the first settlers. * 700B.C Iranians conquered Russia, influencing their food also with different spices. * 800’sA.D Vikings came to Russia and introduced herring. * 1200’s Mongols invaded Russia and brought spices as well as the techniques of grilling, souring milk and pickling cabbage. * Medieval times, during this period Byzantine Empire traded and brought buckwheat, rice and spices to Russia. Because of their location on the trade route between china and Europe, Russian had many access to new foods and spices. * 1500’s, Czars ruled Russia until Bolshevik revolution. * 1917, under the leadership of the Czars, Russia had frequent battles and exchanges power with eastern European countries, particularly Ukraine and Poland. * 1682 – 1725, during the rule of Peter the Great, Russia developed into a modernized country. * 1697 - 1698, Peter the Great travelled throughout Europe to learn about shipbuilding, weapons, military issues, and much more, and turned Russia into a powerful country. * Early 19th century, during this period in the leadership of Napoleon, the Russians almost idolized France and all things French. * Late 19th century, during this period wealthy people of France enjoyed dining on the classical cuisine of the French aristocracy while the peasants subsisted on grains, cereals and some vegetables.
Significant people and events:
* Scandinavians, taught the Russians about drying, smoking, pickling all sorts of foods, including fish, meats, vegetables and fruits. * Middle Eastern neighbours influenced them with pilaffs, noodles and dumplings. * Turks, brought tea to Russia.
* Russian Orthodox Church had Great impact on the cuisine of Russia. With more than 200 fast days that exclude meat throughout the year, fish entrées and hearty vegetable dishes play an important role. * Russia’s history of territorial expansion heavily affected the cuisine. As borders changed, so did the cuisines of Russia and the country it invaded. * The foods of Eastern Europe penetrated the cuisines of Russia and foods of Russia entered the cuisines of the other Eastern European countries.
* Boiling and baking were the most common ways of preparing foods. * . Dairy products were cultured in any residual oven heat. * Food could be prepared in many different ways on the stove oiled, baked, steamed, roasted, and braised. * Food preservation is most popular.
* By 1600 rich and poor alike were cooking food in the Russian masonry stove (pech'), which was massive enough to take up nearly one-quarter of a peasant cottage. * This stove defined the living space, demarcating the female and male spheres of the room into the cooking area (female) to the left of the hearth, and the icon-dominated "beautiful corner" (male) to the right. * The earliest stoves had no fluke, causing smoke to issue directly into the cottage; more prosperous families replaced these "black" stoves with more refined "white" stoves fitted with chimney pipes. Russian peasants generally believed that the stove held mystical powers, with a house spirit (domovoi) residing beneath or behind it. * Russia's most typical dishes reflected the specific properties of the stove, which blazed and was very hot after firing and then gradually diminished in the intensity of its heat. * Breads and pies were baked when the oven was still very hot, either right in the fire's ashes or immediately after they...