Repression – the okhrana
Extremism – denial of free speech led to extremism
Most of Russia’s population were peasants – over 80%
Decline in agriculture
Large army = cost a lot more money
The early reign of Nicholas II, 1894-1905
Came to throne in 1894
Russification – Russian was declared to be the official first language; all legal proceedings such as trials had to be conducted in Russian. Restricted the influence of the non-Russian national minorities within the empire Anti-Semitism – greatest victims of Russification were Jews. Many measures were introduced, heavy social, political and economic restrictions on the Jewish population. Response to Nicholas II’s policies – did not lessen opposition to the tsar, but did the opposite, many political parties came into being.
Economic Reform 1893-1914
The Great Spurt – the spread of industry and the increase in production that occurred in Russia in the 1890’s. Private Enterprise – economic activity organised by individuals or companies, not the government. Capitalists did well out of the spurt
Economic expansion attracted the tsar because it was a means of improving the strength of the Russian armed forces. Sergei Witte – involved in Russia’s development. Minister of finance, set himself the task of modernising the Russian economy. State Capitalism – Witte believed that modernisation could only be achieved through state capitalism (the direction and control of the economy by the government, using its central power and authority). The Russian currency was put on the Gold Standard (the system in which the rouble, had fixed gold content, giving it strength when exchanged with other currencies), Witte hoped this would create financial stability and encourage international investment in Russia. The importance of railways – constructed between1891 and 1902. The Trans-Siberian Railway, stretched for 3750 miles from Moscow to Vladivostok, intended to connect the remoter...