OCR B: Russia in Turmoil, 1900-1924 - All Possible Essays Questions with Plans (By Harry Bojakowski and Scarlett Stock [04.2013])
1. 1905 1.
Why did Tsarism become so unpopular with some groups by 1905? Throughout the centuries leading up to the 20 , Russia had been ruled by the Romanov dynasty via autocracy. This lead to large periods of stagnation and extremely old-fashioned ways while the rest of European was becoming modern. This, along with many other factors lead to Tsarism becoming so unpopular. Beliefs Actions/Events Circumstances Tsar’s Beliefs – belief in royal Defeat in Russo-Japanese war – Discontent of the workers – 12+ working hours prerogative –“I will never agree Jan 1905 port Arthur fell and Strikes were illegal (only some to the representative form of Russian army defeated. government supervised trade government” Embarrassing and incompetent and inadequate government. unions) Still used and believed in Proved how backward and oldOvercrowding in living backward and classic ways of ruling Russia fashioned they were compared conditions Though he was always right to the rest of the world Cholera outbreak every three politically Figes – “it became patriotic to years General long-term discontent Bad priories – 45% annual be anti-government”. and resentment towards the expenditure on army, only 5% Tsar. on education. nd Bloody Sunday – 22 Jan 1905 Resentment from peasants, Problems with the peasantry – workers and minorities – didn’t Father Gapon marched peaceful 1897 – 82% of the population were peasants, 0.5% were agree with the Tsar –general protestors with a petition for ruling class dissatisfaction of all classes with the Tsar. their government and their Gunned down by imperial Failure of emancipation form open hostility towards it. guards 200+ killed. 1863 Peasants angry and thought Caused over 400,000 workers to For land and freedom average land was rightfully theirs go on stroke in Jan. had to pay redemption payments for 49 years – finically Minorities didn’t agree with Gapon: “There is no God, there russification – wanted is no Tsar”. crippled independence Long term resentment. The long term underling factors and resentment led to the disastrous events occurring that just enhanced opposition to the Tsarist regime. However, if it was not for the fundamental beliefs of the Tsar, and hence therefore the opposition in the beliefs form various groups, there would not have been so much unpopularity in the first case. B->C->E th
Red – Hard questions and haven’t come up before, Yellow – Very unlikely questions
Why did Nicholas II commit the blunder that resulted in Bloody Sunday? Intro – It was all about the fundamental beliefs of Nicholas II. The circumstances he was operating in mattered. Nicholas’ Beliefs (we’re crucial): Nicholas’ Aims: Circumstances Belief in autocracy Desire to show his strength at a Banqueting campaign – “I am not ready to be Tsar. I moment where the regime is Demands for constituent know nothing of the business of under fire e.g. –Russo-Japanese assembly by universal suffrage. ruling” – Tsar Nicholas II War. – Over 70,000 involved with Zemstva in 1905 – resented political constraints. Zemstvo Congress votes for law making Duma. Belief in Royal prerogative – “I Nicholas failed to recognise Increased peasant unrest, will never agree to the seriousness of the situation and terrorist activity, worker activity representative form of was absent from the winter and student unrest. Student – banned from holding government, because I consider palace political meetings, violators it harmful to the people whom could be imprisoned without God has entrusted to me” indefinitely. 1500 students Explanation: Why beliefs Explanation: detail of his arrested and imprisoned. Worker activity – 1901 student mattered? Why did they lead intentions – to stop a potential uprising and chose to tell his...