Russia

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Betty A DIGennaro
December 6, 2012
Mr. Sessions

Russia
Population 140.4 million
GDP (PPP) 2.2 Trillion
4.0% Growth
3.4% 5 Year compound annual growth
15,837 Per capita
7.5% Unemployment
6.9% Inflation (CPI)
41.2 Billion

Russia’s politics takes place in the framework of a federal semi presidential republic. According to the Constitution of Russia, the president of Russia is head of State and of a multiparty system with executive power exercised by the government headed by the Prime Minister who is appointed by the President with the Parliament’s approval. With a new constitution and a new parliament representing diverse and factions Russia’s political structure subsequently shows signs of stabilization. The sources of law in Russia include the Russian Constitution, Federal Constitution law; Federal laws and Law of Subjects issue the acts that must comply with the laws. The Constitution has the preeminent force and federal laws can not contradict federal constitutional law. Even thou court decisions are not officially accepted as the sources of law in Russia. The explanatory rulings of the Supreme Court of Russia usually not only clarify the application of existing laws but also create new legal miles. Lower courts usually comply in their practice with the Supreme Court rulings.

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According to Section 71 of the Constitution of Russia, criminal and criminal procedure law is under the exclusive jurisdiction of Federal bodies. Russia’s criminal legislation has its deepest roots in the first known act, Russ kaya Pravda issued in the 11th Century. Russia is run by the Russian Foundation. They believe in equality. Russia’s ideology was built upon the Philosophical Foundation of Russia’s Narodnk populist movement of the 1860-1870. Russia falls under the Civil Law. They adopted this law in the nineteenth and twentieth century. There hopes were to reform their legal systems in order to gain economic and political power comparable to that of Western European nation states. The Russian Federation is a federal state with sources of including the Constitution, federal laws and laws of subjects of federation. This system requires that all its administrative laws comply with the Constitution and any legislation passed by the State. The power base in Russia is basically divided between the parliament and the president. Russia’s legislature, the Federal Assembly, is divided into two chambers – the upper Federation Council and the lower State Duma. The two houses meet separately, but may hold joint closed meetings The Federation Council, the Federal Assembly’s upper chamber, have 178 deputies, two from each of Russia’s 89 regions. One of the members is the locally elected executive head; the other is the head of the regional legislature, selected by the elected regional deputies. The Federation Council is the weaker half of the legislature, but still has been vested with considerable authority under the 1993 constitution. Deputies have the power to confirm border changes within the federation, approve the introduction of martial law or a state of emergency by the president and vote on the deployment of Russian armed forces outside of borders. They are also empowered to schedule presidential elections, impeach the

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president, approve the appointment of Constitutional and Supreme Court judges and approve or dismiss the General Prosecutor.

While most laws submitted by the lower house, the State Duma, do not require the approval of the Federation Council before being sent to the president, some laws must be ratified by both houses. These include laws on the federal budget and taxes; financial, foreign currency, credit, and customs regulation and money emissions; the ratification or rejection of international treaties; the status and protection of the country’s borders; and declarations of war...
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