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WATER RECYCLING AND REUSE.
A WATER SCARCITY BEST PRACTICE SOLUTION

B. Durham1 A.N. Angelakis2 T. Wintgens3 C. Thoeye4 L.Sala5

1 Technical Secretary, EUREAU Water Recycling and Reuse Working Group and Veolia Water, 52 rue d’Anjou, 75384 Paris. Corresponding author Fax: +44 1773 742156 email: bruce.durham@veoliawater.com 2 Hellenic Union of Municipal Enter. for Water Supply and Sewerage, 41200 Larissa and National Foundation for Agricultural Research, Institute of Iraklio, 711 10 Iraklio, Greece 3 RWTH Aachen University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Turmstrasse 46, 52056 Aachen, Germany. 4 Aquafin NV – Dijkstraat 8, Aartselaar 2630, Belgium.

5 Consorci de la Costa Brava, Placa Josep Pla, 4, 3r.1a. 17001 Girona, Spain

ABSTRACT
Europe depends on appropriately treated wastewater to protect the environment and ensure that freshwater is available for all applications. Water recycling and reuse through surface and groundwater bodies is common practice and public health is protected through potable water standards. The reuse of water for non potable applications or potable substitution has been proven internationally in water stressed regions to be a drought proof source of water and one of the most effective water scarcity solutions. The benefit can be substantial as 30-70% of abstractions are for public water supply. The EU Wastewater Directive states that wastewater should be reuse wherever appropriate but there is no clear definition of what is appropriate. Safe water reuse increases the availability of water, reduces nutrient discharge to surface water and can reduce manufacturing cost for industry. Europe needs to define which applications and qualities are appropriate through the development of best practice guidelines so that the member states can safely take advantage of this drought proof and valuable source of water.

Key Words: water reclamation, drought proof, potable substitution,

1. INTRODUCTION

The hot and dry summer...