DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
RUBELLA AND HUMAN LIFE
AN ASSIGNMENT PRESENTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT OF THE COURSE PSY 353 (ABNORMAL/CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY)
ATUCHUKWU, OBINNA W.
LECTURER: DR. E. ONYEIZUGBO
Rubella is a condition that is similar to measles. Symptoms include a rash, mild fever, and swollen lymph glands. Rubella can be transmitted through coughing or sneezing, or by touching an infected surface and then touching the nose or mouth. Most people recover without any serious complications; however, the disease can have a serious effect on developing fetuses. In adults and children, rubella is usually a mild disease with infrequent complications. For pregnant women, the disease can cause serious birth defects (known as Congenital Rubella syndrom), including: * Deafness
* Heart defects
* Mental retardation
* Liver and spleen damage.
There is at least a 20 percent chance of damage to the fetus if a woman is infected with rubella early in her pregnancy.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Rubella is a mild viral illness that lasts for about three days. However, when the disease occurs in pregnant women, it can pose a serious threat to the developing fetus.
Rubella is also known as German measles or three-day measles. However, it has nothing to do with Germany; it comes from the Latin word "germanus," meaning "similar," since rubella and measles share similar symptoms.
CAUSES OF RUBELLA
The cause of Rubella is an infection with a specific virus. This is an RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus from the family Togaviridae and the genus Rubivirus.
MODE OF TRANSMISSION
Rubella virus resides in the mucus in the nose and throat of the infected person. When that person sneezes or coughs, droplets spray into the air. The infected mucus can land in other people's noses or throats when they breathe or put their fingers in their mouth or nose after touching an infected surface. When a person becomes infected with virus, it begins to multiply within the cells that line the back of the throat and the nose. The virus can also spread through the bloodstream or lymph system to other parts of the body. After 14 to 21 days, symptoms can appear. This period between transmission and the start of symptoms is known as the "incubation period. A person with rubella is contagious anytime from about seven days prior to the onset of the rash to seven days after the rash appears. A person can spread the virus if he or she becomes infected, even if symptoms never develop.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF RUBELLA
About 50 percent of people infected with rubella develop related symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they can include:
* Mild fever
* Swollen lymph glands behind the ears and/or neck
* Joint pain and swelling
* Muscle and body aches
* Testicular pain
* Red, watery eyes.
DIAGNOSES AND TREATMENT OF RUBELLA
In order to make a diagnosis, the healthcare provider will ask a number of questions about a person's medical history and perform a physical exam to look for signs or symptoms of the disease. Diagonising Rubella can often be done just based on a person's symptoms and findings on the physical exam.
Several other medical conditions can have signs or symptoms that are similar to those of rubella. The healthcare provider will consider these conditions and rule them out as part of confirming the diagnosis. Some of these conditions include:
* Mononucleosis (mono)
* Scarlet Fever
* Reaction to medications
* Kawasaki syndrome.
There is currently no treatment that can kill the virus (antibiotics are not effective against viruses). Therefore, Rubella treatment focuses on providing relief of symptoms as the body fights the virus. This is called...