An Age of Migration: Globalization and the Root Causes of Migration Globalization Drives Migration
* Migration is a complex process and has been a feature of human societies for many centuries. There are many reasons why people choose to migrate, including: * Poverty
* Armed conflict
* Social strife
* Political turmoil
* Economic hardships
These and other types of events displace millions of people across the globe every day. * Since the mid-twentieth century, however, the nature of migration has also become largely influenced by globalization. Advances in communication and transportation technology have driven globalization forward, allowing us to live in a world where distances between countries and travel time are no longer as significant an obstacle. * In this age of migration and globalization, the world's economies have become more integrated. As a result, it is now common for migrants to send remittances to their home country and, not surprisingly, many developing nations depend on these funds. Overall remittances sent in 2004 totaled 226 billion dollars and remittances accounted for approximately 20 percent of GDP in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Haiti, Jordan, Lesotho, the Republic of Moldova, and Tonga. * Additionally, disparities between developing and developed nations have accelerated with globalization. In 1900, the ratio of the average income of the five richest countries in the world to the 5-10 poorest countries was about 9:1. Today that ratio is 100:1. These disparities among countries combined with limited opportunities for employment that provides high enough wages to care for one's family has stimulated increased migration from developing to developed nations. * During 2000-2005, the more developed regions of the world gained an estimated 2.6 million migrants annually from the less developed regions. This amounts to about 13.1 million migrants over...