Roman Sex Roles:
Priapus: guardian of the garden who had an enormous phallus and threatened to penetrate or rape any thieves; often seen holding a fruit basket, club, or sickle. Pederasty: known as sex with a boy (12-18 years old) by an older man; was very normal and legal in Rome; normally occurred until their beard began to show Cinaedus/Mollis: term for adult males who want to be penetrated; these men often became victim of civil disabilities because this was non-normative Tribas/Tribades: term for sexually perverse “butch” women who used uncommon orifices of their bodies for sex; often dressed and acted inappropriately Said that rape was done to the adult male (bearded thief) orally, Female vaginally, and young boy anally. Women and young boys were normal sex objects for Roman men. Second Punic War
219 BCE: Hannibal Attacks Saguntum and captures it. This breaks Ebro River treaty, provoking the Second Punic War The Second Punic War, fought between Carthage and the Roman Republic from 218-202 BC, was the final major Carthaginian military opposition to Rome's dominance in the Mediterranean. 218 BCE: Hannibal Crosses the Alps in 14 days with elephants (October) Hannibal arrives in Italy and defeats P. Cornelius Scipio at River Ticinus; defeats Sempronius Longus at Trebbia River. 217 BCE: Servilius was sent to Ariminium with his army. Roman disaster at Lake Trasimeno in central Italy, Hannibal defeats Romans led by Flaminius; 15,000 Romans killed. Romans appoint Fabius Maximum dictator. Fabius (aka “the delayer”) avoids contact with Hannibal's army but fails to avoid his escape from Campania. 216 BCE: Hannibal defeats Roman consuls C. Terentius Varro & L. Aemilius Paullus at Cannae; Paulus and 50,000 Romans and Roman army massacred in Cisapline, Gaul. 215 BCE: Many Greek cities joined Hannibal. Patavium (Padua) comes under Roman supremacy.; Lex Oppia: women not allowed to have excessive, dress, carriages, etc; the king of Macedon, Philip V, who controlled most of the mainland of Greece, allied himself with Hannibal and began his own war against Roman possessions. 214 BCE: Lack of manpower leads Rome to lowering of the minimum property qualification for serving in the land forces.; Hannibal moves South 213 BCE: Carthaginian army lands in Sicily.; Roman siege of Syracuse led by Marcellus continues. 212: Saguntum retaken; Hannibal takes Tarentum (Romans kept its citadel); Hanno defeated at Beneventum. Gracchus killed. Hannibal wins victory at Herdonea. 210: Scipio Africanus assumes command in Spain as privatus and then holds some form of command for ten consecutive years.; Hannibal wins second victory at Herdonea and Numistro; Rome raids African coast. 208: Scipio defeats Hannibal’s brother Hasdrubal
207: Hannibal’s brother Hasdrubal arrives in Italy. He is defeated and killed at the Metaurus River in N. Italy by the troops led by the two consuls, M. Livius Salinator & C. Claudius Nero and his head is catapulted into Hannibal’s camp - Hannibal flees to Bruttium where he stays for four years. Further Roman raids on African coast 206: Scipio destroys the last Carthaginian forces in Spain. 205: Scipio elected consul
204: Mago is defeated in northern Italy attempting to reinforce Hannibal; Moors and Numidian Prince Massinissa to take the war to Africa.; Scipio lands in Africa and defeats a Carthaginian army and captures Tunis. Carthage backs rival Numidian Syphax who along with Hasdrubal Gisco is defeated by Scipio in two successive battles. 203: Hannibal and Mago are recalled to Carthage. Hannibal's convoy slips through carrying about 15,000 men 202: Carthaginians attack on Roman convoy which has run aground re-opens the war; Hannibal Returns to Africa ; Defeat of Carthage at Zama 201: War Against Hannibal ends - Peace granted to...
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