Roman Empire and Pp

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1. Define the term Agricultural Revolutions and explain how it impacted the world. (Chapter 1, pp. 7-8 and p.11 two paragraphs before the subsection “Life in Neolithic communities”)

2. What was the most important result/benefit of the development of settled agricultural communities? (Chapter 1, p. 11)

3. Who were the earliest settled people in Mesopotamia and what kind of writing system did they use? (Chapter 2, section “Mesopotamia”)

4. Why did the status of women decline with the spread of agriculture? (Chapter 2, p.18)

5. Define the term “city-state.” (Chapter 2, p. 16)

6. How can we explain the absence of a formal code of law in Egypt? (Chapter 2, p. 25)

7. Define “hieroglyphics” and “papyrus.” What was their practical purpose? (Chapter 2, p.26)

8. Why did Egypt develop such a unique culture and what was their system of religious beliefs based on? (Chapter 2, pp. 23, and p. 27 “Belief and Knowledge”)

9. Provide three examples which illustrate the important role and great contribution of the Phoenicians in the history of humankind. (Chapter 3, “Phoenicia and the Mediterranean,” pp. 80-84; also read p.82 about Phoenician dyes; also read Chapter 5, pp. 128-129 "Expansion in Italy and the Mediterranean”)

10. Define “Mandate of Heaven,” “Confucianism,” “Daoism,” “Warring States Period” (Chapter 2, pp. 42-48 “The Zhou Period” and “Confucianism, Daoism, and Chinese Society,” Chapter 5, p. 142 “The First Chinese Empire”)

11. Briefly describe Persian Empire (system of government, economy, culture/religion). (Chapter 4, pp. 93-99)

12. Define “democracy” (as it existed in Ancient Greece”) and “oligarchy” (Chapter 4, pp. 107).

13. What ancient society started colonization to relieve the pressure of rapidly growing population because of the lack of farmland to support it? (Chapter 4, pp. 102-107, read all these pages!)

14. Define “Peloponnesian war” and “Persian wars”:  time period, participants, what the conflict was about. (Chapter 4, pp. 111-116)

15. Explain the connection between Alexander the Great and the term “Hellenistic Age”? (Chapter 5, pp. 115-120).

16. What is the main characteristic of the Hellenistic culture? (Chapter 5, pp. 115-120). Find the definition of the words “cosmopolitan” and “homogenous” in a dictionary, write them down.

17. What diplomatic policy helped the Romans to bring Italy under their control? (Chapter 5, “Expansion in Italy and the Mediterranean,” pp. 128-129)

18. List some of the main accomplishments of Julius Caesar and Octavian Augustus. When were they in power? (Chapter 5, p.132).

19. List some of the main cultural and technological achievements of the Roman Empire. (Chapter 5, pp. 133-138)

20. Briefly describe the Vedic Age. Connect Indian class and caste system with the concept of reincarnation. (Chapter 6, pp. 153-155)

21. Explain the importance of the Brahmins in Indian society and how they tried to protect their privileged position. (Chapter 6, pp. 155)

22. Explain how Vedic religion, Jainism, Buddhism, and Hinduism reflect the developments in Indian society and the needs of Indian people. (Chapter 6, pp. 153-160)

23. Briefly Describe Mauryan Empire (government, economy, culture). (Chapter 6, pp. 160-162)

24. Briefly describe Gupta Empire (government, economy, culture). (Chapter 6, pp. 165)

25. Explain the connection between the sati ritual and the custom of footbinding. (Chapter 6, p.163, Chapter 10, p. 160-161)

26. Briefly describe the Sassanid Empire (government, economy, culture). (Chapter 7, pp. 176-177).

27. In the context of African cultural characteristics, define “great traditions” and “small traditions” (Chapter 7, pp. 185-188)

28. Define “umma” and “ulama.” Memorize to make sure that you don’t confuse them. (Chapter 8, p. 201, and p. 207)

29. List the territories conquered by the Arab armies during the 7th and 8th...
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