In examining the success of the Romans, we must first look at how Rome evolved from a republic to it’s height as an empire. The early Romans had a mixed constitution. Two Roman consuls served as the supreme military and civil service authorities. A senate existed, which appointed commanders, assigned funds and set most public policy. Also an assembly of all adult male citizens gave an element of democracy to the republic. The Roman’s were able to craft a complex system of laws that have served as a model for much of the laws of Western Europe. In the time of the republic, Rome began a campaign of expansion throughout the Italian Peninsula. By the 290’s B.C. Rome dominated the area. In conquered territories the Roman’s designed a system of confederation that enabled them to form alliances and spread the influence of Roman society. A series of war with Carthage, known as the Punic Wars, stretched Roman reach far throughout the Mediterranean. This expansion was made possible because Rome was dedicated to establishing its military as the most powerful in the world. Further conquest continued and Rome arranged a new administration, in which governors were placed to rule the various provinces. From 133 to 27 BC revolution began to challenge the bounds of the republic’s constitution. Continual occupation and war brought about a string of powerful general’s or warlords who won supremacy with the support of their armies. The most famous of whom is Gaius Julius Caesar. The Roman state ceased to be a Republic and was converted into a dictatorship. However after Julius Caesar’s death some thought it might be possible to renew the Republican constitution but these positions were put to rest when Octavian, Caesar’s... [continues]
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