Roman Civilization and Zhou-Han China (Same Time Period):

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Roman civilization and Zhou-Han China (same time period):

1. A Roman City in Ancient China
-Roman empire ppl immigrated to China, Turkestan (convincing?), pp. 1 -Roman: never succeeded in subduing (conquer) the Silk Road army? -Military: Roman VS Parthians, pp. 3
-Military glory: the most wanted of Romans

2. The Roman way
-Roman: a true comedy of manners, pp. 13
-Roman’s literature influenced by Greece
-Roman’s literature appeared during 3rd century A.D., after the First Punic War, pp, 14 -Sense for poetry was not strong in Roman ppl
-Carthage had been twice defeated and the foundations were solidly laid of the Roman civilization, pp. 15 -Athens: democracy, but upon slavery (prerequisite to civilized life in the ancient world); except slavery, every men were free and politically free, pp. 17 -Before: aristocracy; after: Athens: comfortable and undistinguished; life lived on an easy middle-class level -Comfort, prosperity, safety: order of the new day that produced the New Comedy, pp. 18 -Rome’s comedy was so important to us (according to writer), pp. 19 -2 comedians: Menander and Aristophanes

-Republican Rome: (virtues) Discipline, frugality, hardihood, incomparable dignity, ranks of fighting men , simple life, little on heroic heights, pp. 23 -

3. The Roman Empire – A Very Short Introduction, by Christopher Kelly -Ch. 1 Brutal process of conquest (when establish the empire) -Roman: warrior state, always won, pp. 4
-around middle of 3rd Century BC, dominant in w. Mediterranean -merchants: trade with Egypt, Lebanon in luxury goods; Britain for tin; African coast for ivory and gold, pp. 5 -Punic wars: limit the Romans; 1st: Sicily, 2nd: severest defeat on romans, Hannibal (X roman) conquered Italy; 3rd: complete destruction of Sicily(pp.6) -roman republic: a degree a popular participation in politics + unabashed plutocracy -but voting system: problematic, only adult male + rich out of poor, pp. 7 -Plutocracy therefore continue

-oligarchic constitution, deliberate restraints on ambitious individual, prevent long-term military /political authority -generals refused to retire civil war, pp. 8
-dynastic monarchy rapid growth of Roman empire, pp. 9
-Octavian to Augustus, from a warlord to emperor
-From small city-states to imperial superpower: impressive transformation, pp. 10 -military establishment: dynamic
-rousing glorifications of conquest; roman military superiority, pp. 14 -but also brutally fights, and suppressed rebels, pp. 15
-eg. Jewish revolt by Sicarii “dagger-men”, pp. 17
-Sicarii seized Masada, which was one of the best-defended fortresses in Judaea -Primary source in pp. 19
-Roman: seldom recognized themselves as aggressors

-Ch. 2 Imperial power: emperor = gods?
-people worship Artemis, goddess, daughter of Zeus and Leto, close connection with Greek gods, pp. 24 -celebrate a living emperor as if he were a god supremacy of imperial power, connect to local people, pp. 25 -Trajan, Artemis = Julius Caesar, Augustus

-emperors representing Olympian gods + heroic male nudes, pp. 26 -Roman victory = traditional myth and ancient deities
-emperor-worship = social prestige, pp. 28
-desire for glorious public display to celebrate divinity of emperor imperial priesthood should not be expensive -sF-Octavian, Caesar’s adopted son: called himself as diui filius “son of a god”, pp. 29 -but religious rituals surrounding emperor-worship were not somehow secondary to the real business of rule (like taxation, warfare, justice), pp. 30 -even worship of living emperors

-connect with civic and personal glory superhuman emperor
-aristocracy + too mortal failing who rule Roman empire not the same, pp. 31 -good emperors: liberality, ciuilitas, moderation, clemency, pp. 34 -Nero: bad emperor, deform his world, made Rome became dark and treacherous place, pp. 37

-Ch. 3 privileged elites in Mediterranean cities who responsible for orderly govt’ -Roman governors were reactive, not...
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