The very first roller coaster appeared in Russia, called Russian Ice slides. Russian Ice slides, which first appeared in the 1700's were amusement devices found at fairs all over Russia. A slide consisted of a steep drop made entirely of ice. Occasionally to increase the excitement people added a small series of bumps at the end. While these slides became increasingly popular in Russia, a French businessman, decided to build an Ice Slide in France. However, the French climate was not suited to this and the ice soon melted, leaving what some people have called a "slurpee slide". He then decided to build an all weather version of the ride, using a waxed wooden slope and hills, and a wood sled with rollers on the bottom. Sometime during this history of the roller coaster the first attempt at a loop-the-loop was made in France, in the 1850's. This ride called the Centrifuge Railway, featuring an early coaster car that would travel through a loop with nothing but sheer centrifugal force holding both the car to the track, and the rider to the car. This idea was quickly shut down by wary government officials who stopped its introduction after one accident. The next significant attempt at a looping roller coaster did not come along until 1895. This is when Lina Beecher designed the Flip Flap. However, The Flip Flap had a very terrible flaw, its 25-foot vertical loop amounted to a nearly perfect circle, and the tight curve coming in and out of the loop exerted high G-forces-enough to break riders' necks. The Flip Flap was soon shut down. However, roller coaster loops in the early 20th century lived to see another day. In 1901, Edmund Prescott designed a vertical loop with an elliptical curve, allowing a great reduction in G-forces at the bottom of the loop. The first roller coaster to introduce the elliptical curve design was Prescott's Loop the Loop roller coaster on Coney Island. In 1975, Arrow Dynamics designed and built one of the most important...
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