The roller coaster is a popular amusement ride developed for amusement parks and modern theme parks. Most roller coasters consist of some basic parts: a chain lift, a catapult launch-lift (in newer coasters), and some type of brake mechanism. The first roller coaster originated in the early 80’s in Russia, it was built under the orders of a Russian empress named Catherine the Great in the Garden of Oranienbaum a Russian royal residence located in Saint Petersburg.

Roller coasters work by using gravity to move along the track, most think they have an engine inside that pushes them along the track like an automobile. The first part of a roller coaster is always a big hill; the biggest hill is always the highest point. The purpose of this is to gain two very important things gravitational potential energy, and kinetic energy. The reason these two things are important is because over the course of the coaster ride those two things propel the coaster, by exchanging for one another and sometimes combining. They can be exchanged for one another because at certain points on the ride the roller coaster may just have potential energy (like at the top of the first hill), or just kinetic energy (like at the lowest points) or maybe a combination of both kinetic and potential (like at all other parts) of the ride. Kinetic energy is relative to speed and potential energy is relative to height, so the kinetic energy will always be the highest at the lowest points and vice versa.

Like the info above states, there a 3 basic parts of a roller coaster I will now explain those. First is the chain lift; a type of lift hill found on roller coasters. It is the most common method of lift hill, and has been used for hundreds of years. A chain lift is propelled by one or two motors under the lift hill. As the motor turns, it moves the chain. When the train enters the lift hill the chain dog attaches itself, and it propels the car forward. Second is the catapult launch-lift; a...

...Individuals love to go to the amusement parks and try out the rides that are available. The most common and thrilling ride is the rollercoaster. An amusement park is not an amusement park if it does not contain a rollercoaster. What makes these rollercoasters so fun that every amuse parks has one. A lot of people would say it is their extreme high speeds that makes it very exciting. That is a valid answer, but it is the wrong answer. The speed has nothing to do with the excitement. It is more than likely that most people travel faster on their ride along the highway on the way to the amusement park than they would in a rollercoaster. Basically the thrill all comes from the acceleration and the feeling of weightlessness that they produce. Rollercoasters thrill people because of their ability to accelerate them downward one moment and upwards the next; leftwards one moment and rightwards the next. How does this thrill machine work? There are two ways that this question will be answered. First, through the basic principles and then through a more advanced explanation.
Rollercoaster rides involve a great deal of physics. The ride often begins with a chain and motor which exerts a force on the train of cars to lift the train to the top of a tall hill. Once the cars are lifted to the top of the hill,...

...Introduction 2
Brief history of RollerCoasters 2
Physics of rollercoasters 2
Rollercoaster Design 3
Analysis of RollerCoaster 4
1st Slope 4
2nd Slope 4
1st Dip 5
3rd slope 5
Loop 5
Conclusion 5
Bibliography 6
Appendix 6
Synopsis
The context of this report is to design and analyse a rollercoaster within the parameters of: a maximum “g” force of “4g’s”, a length of 40 to 100 seconds and has to be constructed of metal rather than wooden trestles. This report also requires a qualitative and quantitative explanation of the theory and figures behind the analysis.
Introduction
In this report there is a qualitative and quantitative explanation of the physics of a rollercoaster and well as the figures which are retrieved via mathematical analysis of a rollercoaster.
Brief history of RollerCoasters
The first basic rollercoasters were first created in Russia in the 1780’s where a large wooden ramp would be constructed in winter and as the ice covered it people would ride sleds down it, these creations were called ‘Russian Mountains’. In 1804 the innovative idea was taken to France where Small wheels were added to the sleds to make the ‘Les Montagnes Russes’ or ‘Russian Mountains’ usable during...

...RollerCoasters
The main energy transfers that happens as a “car” travels along the track from the start of the ride to the end.
1. The main energy transfers are between gravitational potential energy (GPE) and kinetic energy (KE), and the eventual decrease of mechanical energy as it transforms into thermal energy. Rollercoasters often start as a chain and motor exercises a force on the car to lift it up to the top of a very tall hill. At this height, GPE is at its highest, as we can see through the formula:
GPE = mass x gravitational field strength x height (for all physics in relation to Earth, take g to be 10 m/s2 or 10 N/kg)
We can see through this formula that as the height increases, so does the GPE, which will then be converted into KE, or kinetic energy. This is the energy that takes place as the “car” is falling down the hill. This is calculated through the formula:
KE = 0.5 x mass x speed
This means that the kinetic energy increases as the speed increases, and vice versa. Therefore, this means the higher the kinetic energy, the faster the “car”. We can actually be extremely specific in terms of this relationship. We know that as the mass doubles, the KE doubles, but as the speed doubles, the KE quadruples. This becomes important when analysing this formula:
KE = GPE/0.5mv2 = mgh
2. A rollercoaster ride is a thrilling experience which involves a wealth of...

...geometry and calculus all take a huge role helping out in forming these models.
Rollercoasters first originated in the 16th and 17th centuries by the Russians. They would create sleds made of ice or wood and slide down slopes. The French were amused with this pass time that they actually took the idea back with them home. On HowStuffWorks.com it states, “The most widespread account is that a few entrepreneurial Frenchmen imported the ice slide idea to France.” This was the first time that people were amused with any thought or idea of sliding down some kind of slope and feeling a rush that someday would turn out to be one of the favorite pastimes to present day. It was not until years later when La Marcus Thompson, an inventor and designer created the first rollercoaster in Coney Island, New York City. In Wired.com it states, “…hurtled passengers down an undulating 600-foot-long track at speeds of up to a blistering 6 mph would hardly be recognizable to riders of modern-day rollercoasters.” The coaster was a 50 foot platform and the passengers would sit sideways. This was the beginning of the rollercoaster.
How does math come into play then? Math is needed to build a rollercoaster because everything has to be precise. The first drop is one of the most important because it will determine the speed for the rest of the ride. The height and...

... The cars subsequently gain kinetic energy. Kinetic energy - the energy of motion - is dependent upon the mass of the object and the speed of the object. The train of coaster cars speeds up as they lose height. Thus, their original potential energy (due to their large height) is transformed into kinetic energy (revealed by their high speeds). As the ride continues, the train of cars are continuously losing and gaining height. Each gain in height corresponds to the loss of speed as kinetic energy (due to speed) is transformed into potential energy (due to height). Each loss in height corresponds to a gain of speed as potential energy (due to height) is transformed into kinetic energy (due to speed)
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/mmedia/energy/ce.cfm (7/10)
A rollercoaster moves in the same way a marble would roll down a slanted surface. The marble rolls because it has Gravitational Potential Energy. Potential Energy is gathered by an object as it moves upwards, or away from, the earth. With a rollercoaster, this is acheived by pulling the train up a lift hill to the coaster's highest point. As it moves higher, it has more potential to fall to earth, increasing its Kinetic Energy. Kinetic Energy is gathered as an object falls. There's a transfer of Potential Energy to Kinetic Energy as the rollercoaster train leaves the top of the lift hill and enters the first drop....

...er 3) Physics of rollercoasters
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Simply speaking, a rollercoaster is a machine that uses gravity and inertia to send a train of cars along a winding track.[1] This combination of gravity and inertia, along with G-forces and centripetal acceleration give the body certain sensations as the coaster moves up, down, and around the track. The forces experienced by the rider are constantly changing, leading to feelings of joy in some riders and nausea in others. The basic principles of rollercoaster mechanics have been known since 1865,[citation needed] and since then rollercoasters have become a popular diversion.
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centripetal acceleration
Centripetal acceleration is not a true force, but rather the result of an object’s inertia, or resistance to change in direction, as the object moves in a circular path. The "force" points toward the center of the circle, but a rollercoaster rider would feel centripetal acceleration as a force pushing them toward the outer edge of the car. The following equation expresses centripetal acceleration:
where ar is centripetal acceleration, v is velocity and r is the radius of the circular path. This shows that two rollercoaster cars entering two loops of different size at the same speed will experience different acceleration...

...Rides
Rollercoasters are a thrill seeker for people for many centuries. People have traveled
all over the world to seek the thrills of hills, twists, and loops. Rollercoasters were first
known as a sled that plummeted down a steep icy hill. The first rollercoasters did not have any
safety features which caused a lot of injuries and deaths. The rides are a popular attraction for
people so their safety has to be ensured. Rollercoasters have advanced in mechanical
parts, safety devices, and computer technology to make it a safe for the ridership.
The first safety devices to be added to a rollercoaster was a hand break for a coal car
that ran on a railroad track. The next safety feature was running a rollercoaster in a trough with
wheels still underneath but side guides added to keep the ride on the track. This would even
allow for the ride to get off track. Then there were side friction wheels was in the right
direction but was not fool proof. The ride could still go off track and seat belts added to ensure
keeping the passenger in the ride. Next, there were two sets of wheels on the rollercoaster, a set
underneath and on the side, along with lap bars, shoulder harnesses, and bucket seats. This
advancement in the wheel ensured the...

... KERLON MOORE
ABSTRACT
A rollercoaster is an amusement park ride where passengers sit in a series of wheeled cars that are linked together. The cars move along a pair of rails supported by a wood or steel structure. In operation, the cars are carried up a steep incline by a linked chain. When the cars reach the top of the incline, they roll free of the chain and are propelled downward due to gravity through a series of drops, rises, and turns. Finally the cars are braked to a stop at the starting point, where the passengers get out and new passengers get on. Rollercoasters are considered by many to be the most exciting ride in any amusement park.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Task Pages
Abstract 3
Introduction 5
Objectives & Methodology 6
Background Information
* Design of a RollerCoaster 7-13
* Working of a RollerCoaster 14-15
* Energy Transformations 16
Methodology 17
Main Body 18
* Brief History of Roller a Coaster
* Types of RollerCoasters
Reference and Appendix 19
INTRODUCTION
This project is based on the operations and the energy conversions of a rollercoaster and it is designed to make an understanding of how a...