February 6, 2012
This paper explores the similarities and differences of public police and private security throughout history. How the criminal justice system and public police and private security are linked to each other. The essential policies that have been developed and how these police have assisted in the cooperation between police and private security. Finally, the need for a comprehensive security plan will be discussed and the reasons why each plan requires operational linkage.
Roles and Responsibilities of Public Policing vs. Private Security
Prior to 1829s establishment of the London Metropolitan Police Force by Sir Robert Peel, policing and security were interchangeable. Once Peel’s modern police force was established its role as the protector of the public degraded the need for private citizens to volunteer to secure their communities. Though professional policy took over the role of protector of the public the need for private citizens to guard buildings, commerce, and critical facilities that professional police could not because of manpower constraints was recognized.
This paper will address the historical similarities of public policing and private security. The different leadership styles involved in public policing and private security. The essential polices that separate public police and private security. Finally the need for a comprehensive security plan and how both public police and private security roles need to be overlapping to provide safety and security for the public.
The Historical Similarities of Public Policing and Private Security
Policing as a full-time profession is approximately 183 years old. This in historic contexts is new. However, the concept of protecting people, places and things is a concept that reaches back to the formation of modern society. The Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans made good use of the concept of military garrisons that would provide security and law and order for a specific city and region. During these times the military or subunits of the military provided public security. The concept of military policing would have lasted up to the Middle Ages (400-1600 AD) when all three empires had come into decline and most areas across Europe had no central leadership to provide security for the people. The beginnings form of law enforcement was the frankpledge system (1066-1300 AD) 10 tithing’s (10 village security groups) were organized into a "hundred," supervised by a constable whom the local nobility appointed. The primary duty of the constable was to quartermaster the equipment of the hundred and raise forces quickly. Ten hundreds were further organized into a "shire", supervised by a "shire-reeve". Today the shire-reeve is pronounced Sheriff. (Adenauer 2005)
The frankpledge system was augmented in 1285 under the Statue of Winchester. This statue established the night watch and the laws of apprehension. This system of providing security was unchanged until Sir Robert Peel established the London Metropolitan Police in 1829 and with it making law enforcement a full-time profession. (Adenauer 2005)
Using very liberal math it can be estimated that it took over 4,929 years before the concept of an organized professional police force was established in western civilization. So it is easy to see how important the volunteer citizen was to the security of the community. Though policing and security were interchangeable terms prior to 1829, the use of non-professional citizens to provide security cannot be discounted after 183 years of modern history. Leadership Concepts in Public Policing and Private Security
Though military units were originally used as form of keeping law and order in the beginning of civilization, the concept was not seen as so favorable when the modern police force was formed. The fear of a paramilitary police force controlled...