Role of Women in Public Service

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This paper titled "Women in Public Service-Issues and Recommendation" provides an in-depth and thought provoking information about the importance of role of women in economic development of Pakistan. It contains information about the state of education and employment of women in Pakistan. A detailed review about discrimination and social prejudices based on sex has been presented and educational status and service opportunities for females in Pakistan have been discussed. The purpose of the research was to examine the role and status of women with in the strategies and instrumentality of development in Pakistan. The four central questions underlying this study are:- a) What is the present condition of women regarding education and employment. . b) To what extent and at what level did women participate in Public Service accruing in Economic Development efforts in Pakistan and c) How did this participation of women contribute to the relative success of economic development efforts in the country. In reality. women are an integral part of the economic process of the country within and outside their homes, in the formal and informal sectors in urban and rural areas. Besides women's participation in Public Service is minimal, they are almost negligible in contributing to the national economy. Rural women are major contributors in four sub-sectors of the rural economy, crop production, livestock production, cottage industry, household and family maintenance activities, such as transporting water, fuel and fodder to and from the home, food preparation and preservation and caring for children, the elderly and the disabled women make up 76% of all part-time workers and only 25% of those are acknowledged as full-time workers. Female workers are more likely to be full-time workers in all farm sizes in NWFP (89.54%) and Sindh (74,36%). Punjab shows an almost equal division between full-time workers (55.6%) and part-time workers, while in Balochistan 82.84 percent of female family workers are part-time. An estimated two million women are part of the informal urban labour force as home-based workers (piece-rate workers, family business, self-employed entrepreneurs) and these working outside the house (in manufacturing, as construction workers, in domestic services, and as vendors). Women participation in economic productive activities in rural and urban areas, both within and outside the house, is now an established fact. However, they face a variety of constraints, the major ones being isolation and mobility, which prevent women's access to information, training skills, credit and opportunities. As a result women's work continues to be arduous and tedious and their potential productivity remains unrealized, concurrently, their quality of life is abysmally sub-standard. Introduction

The occupation of women in Public Service can be traced throughout the history of mankind. The references in scriptures of different religions refer participation of women as worker and co-worker with men at work. Even there are evidences of coordinated work approach between Adam and Eve. The annals of history however, reveal that working environment, nature of duties monitory returns and facilitations to women at work have been changing from time to time and had been different from area to area. In general, working women had been facing adverse and restricted environment with less then compensated monitory returns.

With the advent of political awakening and the Industrial revolution in 17th century, particularly under the influence of liberate philosophers and proponents of social justice, working environment for women had been gradually improving. However, this evolutionary process had not been uniform in different areas and had been changing its pace from one era to the other.

The life of a Pakistani woman is not easy. It is not a hidden fact that she is subjected to discrimination and harassment, within and without the so-called...
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