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The UN Millennium Project is an independent advisory body commissioned by the UN Secretary-General to propose the best strategies for meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs are the world’s targets for dramatically reducing extreme poverty in its many dimensions by 2015—income poverty, hunger, disease, exclusion, lack of infrastructure and shelter—while promoting gender equality, education, health, and environmental sustainability. The UN Millennium Project is directed by Professor Jeffrey D. Sachs, Special Advisor to the Secretary-General on the Millennium Development Goals. The bulk of its analytical work has been carried out by 10 thematic task forces comprising more than 250 experts from around the world, including scientists, development practitioners, parliamentarians, policymakers, and representatives from civil society, UN agencies, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the private sector. The UN Millennium Project reports directly to UN Secretary-General Koﬁ Annan and United Nations Development Programme Administrator Mark Malloch Brown, in his capacity as Chair of the UN Development Group.
Task Force on Hunger Halving hunger: it can be done Task Force on Education and Gender Equality Toward universal primary education: investments, incentives, and institutions Task Force on Education and Gender Equality Taking action: achieving gender equality and empowering women Task Force on Child Health and Maternal Health Who’s got the power? Transforming health systems for women and children Task Force on HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB, and Access to Essential Medicines Working Group on HIV/AIDS Combating AIDS in the developing world Task Force on HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB, and Access to Essential Medicines Working Group on Malaria Coming to grips with malaria in the new millennium Task Force on HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB, and Access to Essential Medicines Working Group on TB Investing in strategies to reverse the global incidence of TB Task Force on HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB, and Access to Essential Medicines Working Group on Access to Essential Medicines Prescription for healthy development: increasing access to medicines Task Force on Environmental Sustainability Environment and human well-being: a practical strategy Task Force on Water and Sanitation Health, dignity, and development: what will it take? Task Force on Improving the Lives of Slum Dwellers A home in the city Task Force on Trade Trade for development Task Force on Science, Technology, and Innovation Innovation: applying knowledge in development
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First published by Earthscan in the UK and USA in 2005 Copyright © 2005 by the United Nations Development Programme All rights reserved ISBN: 1-84407-218-5 paperback For a full list of publications please contact: Earthscan 8–12 Camden High Street London, NW1 0JH, UK Tel: +44 (0)20 7387 8558 Fax: +44 (0)20 7387 8998 Email: email@example.com Web: www.earthscan.co.uk 22883 Quicksilver Drive, Sterling, VA 20166-2012, USA Earthscan is an imprint of James and James (Science Publishers) Ltd and publishes in association with the International Institute for Environment and Development A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record has been requested This publication should be cited as: UN Millennium Project 2005. Innovation: Applying Knowledge in Development. Task Force on Science, Technology, and Innovation. Photos: Front cover Pete Turner/Getty Images; back cover, top to bottom, Christopher Dowswell, Pedro Cote/ UNDP, Giacomo Pirozzi/Panos Pictures,...