A project manager is the person who has the overall responsibility for the successful initiation, planning, design, execution, monitoring, controlling and closure of a project. The job title is used in construction, petrochemical, architecture, information technology and many different industries that produce products and services. The project manager must have a combination of skills including an ability to ask penetrating questions, detect unstated assumptions and resolve conflicts, as well as more general management skills. Key among his or her duties is the recognition that risk directly impacts the likelihood of success and that this risk must be both formally and informally measured throughout the lifetime of the project. Risks arise from uncertainty, and the successful project manager is the one who focuses on this as the main concern. Most of the issues that impact a project arise in one-way or another from risk. A good project manager can lessen risk significantly, often by adhering to a policy of open communication, ensuring every significant participant has an opportunity to express opinions and concerns. It follows that a project manager is one who is responsible for making decisions both large and small, in such a way that risk is controlled and uncertainty minimized. Every decision taken by the project manager should be taken in such a way that it directly benefits the project. Project managers use project management software, such as Microsoft Project, to organize their tasks and workforce. These software packages allow project managers to produce reports and charts in a few minutes, compared with the several hours it can take if they do it by hand.
Roles and Responsibilities
The role of the project manager encompasses many activities including:
✓ Scope Management
✓ Time Management
✓ Cost Management
✓ Risk Management
✓ Quality Management
✓ Contract Management
✓ Communication Management
✓ Human Resources Management
Finally, senior management must give a project manager support and authority if he or she is going to be successful.
Best Practices for Scope Management
The knowledge area of Scope Management is all about making sure that the project includes only the work required to complete the project successfully. To be effective at scope management, project manager must learn to control what is and what is not in the scope of the project. Below are some of the best practices for successful scope management.
✓ Collect Project Requirements
✓ Define the Scope
✓ Create a Work Breakdown Structure
✓ Verify the Scope and Get Feedback
✓ Monitor and Control the Scope
1. Collect Project Requirements
The ability to define and then effectively control the scope of a project depends a lot on the goals and requirements of the project. For this reason, project manager need to gather the necessary information up front, before you ever start the project. By clearly understanding the needs of the stakeholders and the capabilities and constraints of the resources, project manager have a higher chance to succeed.
The easiest way to collect the project requirements is to perform interviews with the key stakeholders. Ask questions about their views of the finished product, the deliverables they expect to receive, and the schedule of the project. Once project manager have the information need, project manager may want to create a Scope Management Plan to define the processes that will be followed in defining scope, documenting scope, verifying and accepting scope, and managing change requests.
2. Define the Scope
The scope of a project typically consists of a set of deliverables, an assigned budget, and an expected closure time. The previously collected project requirements will...