The trend in psychiatric care is shifting from that of inpatient hospitalization to a focus of outpatient care within the community. Community mental health services include all those activities in the community connected with mental health other than the institutional or hospitalized setting. The community approach focuses on the total population of defined geographical area rather than individual patient. Emphasis is mainly on preventive services which include provision of a continuous, comprehensive system of services designed to meet all mental health related needs in the community. Mental health care is provided. through education, consultation, brief psychotherapy, crisis intervention and follow up care.
COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH NURSING
Community mental health nursing is the application of knowledge of psychiatric nursing in Preventing, promoting and maintaining, mental health of the people and to help in early diagnosis and care and to rehabilitate the clients after mental illness.
Goals of Community Mental Health Nursing
* To provide preventive activities to population and communities for the purpose of promoting mental health and securing participation in self help activities. (Primary prevention). * To provide opportunities for interventions as early as possible when families, special groups and communities' experiences stress, tension and lack of organization that affects their abilities to handle affairs of daily living and to work in satisfying and effective ways (secondary prevention. * To provide corrective learning experiences for clients, groups who have deficits and disabilities in the basic competencies needed to cope in society and to help individuals to develop a sense of selfworth and independence (tertiary prevention.). * To anticipate when population become at risk for particular emotional problems and to identify and change social and psychological factors that affect people's interaction with their environment. * To develop innovative approaches to primary prevention activities. * To assist in providing mental health education about mental health and illness and to teach peoples how to assess their mental health. * To provide leadership in the field of community mental health nursing as, the care of the mentally ill becomes entirely a communitybased endeavor.
ROLE OF NURSE IN COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH NURSING
* The nurse assists in all kinds of primary socialization groups such as families, schools and work groups. * To help family systems to, develop in their members basic social competencies and problem solving skills that is necessary to achieve satisfactory interactions and working relationships. * To help members to develop a personal organization of self, strengthen their abilities to adapt and cope, achieve selfhood and maintain independence and autonomy in their relationships. * Nurses may find themselves in daily contact with battered spouses, abused children, homeless persons, or substance abusers. * The nurse will frequently find a patient in need of emotional support. * The nurse has the responsibility of assessing, intervening and maintaining a caring relationship of trust with the patient. * Able to manage with competency and efficiency many of the stress and trauma experienced by families and their members in the process of daily living. * To provide mental health care and services through the use of specialized knowledge and strategies. * Expected to play other nursing roles such as therapist, counselor, consultant, laison, client advocate, clinical researcher, and manpower facilitator. * Provide care to much special population like homeless, individuals at high risk, rural populations, the elderly and the abused.
1) PRIMARY PREVENTION
Primary prevention means lowering the rate of new cases of mental disorders in...