Role of Music in Social Change

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THE ROLE OF MUSIC
IN BRINGING ABOUT SOCIAL CHANGE

Term Paper Project
Presented in partial fulfilment
Of
The requirement for
THE MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK DEGREE
UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI

Mrs. Vaijayanta A. Jagtap Jason Rasquinha
(Guide) (Student)

College of Social Work
Nirmala Niketan
38, New Marine Lines
Mumbai-400020

MARCH 2013
Acknowledgement
I would firstly like to express my endless gratitude to my guide Prof. Vaijayanta Anand Jagtap for being an endless source of inspiration, knowledge and encouragement to put my passion for music into the paper. Secondly I would like to thank Ms. Marisa Lobo for the idea of writing this paper on my most thrilling hobby, Music. I would also like to thank Mr. Sambhaji Bhagat who shared with me the history of change music in Maharashtra as well as his experiences of being a singer and activist for the issues of Dalit emancipation. I would like to thank Sr. Anitha Chilamkuri who helped me by translating the Telugu lyrics of Gaddar. Finally I would like to thank my father, Mr. Merwyn Rasquinha for providing me with the convenience of a domestic internet connection and my sister Christabelle D’Souza for the use of her laptop.

Table of Contents

Title Page Number
List of Abbreviations5
Introduction6
Awakening 6
Genres in India and the West7
Striking a Chord with the Masses8
Countering the Dark Reflections of Music8
Friction and Harmony9
The Meaning of Music in the Indian Scenario9
One with the Crowd 10
Rationale 11
Tuning into Pain 12
African-American Slavery 12
The Blues 13
Blues among the Crops 14
War Time Blues 15
Birth of the Ghetto 15
Rap and Hip-Hop 19
Swaying to Oneness 23
Counter Culture and the Vietnam War 23
The Power of Flowers 25
Woodstock 26
John Lennon and The Beatles’ Message 27
History of Africans in the Caribbean 31
The Culture of Rastafarianism 31
The Music of the Rasta Man32
Wake Up and Fight Back!! 36
African-American Oppression in the 1960’s 36
The Background of the Civil Rights Movement 38
The Soundtrack of the Civil Rights Movement 39
Sit-Ins, Jail-ins and the Freedom Riders 40
Music of Change in India 43
Caste Oppression in Maharashtra 44
The Bhotmange Incident 45
The Ramabai Firing 46
The Maratha Sword 47
Music, the Weapon of the Dalits 47
Communism and the Caste System 50
Conversions 51
Schisms and Co-options 52
Educate, Organize and Agitate 53
Oppression in Andhra Pradesh and the Phenomenon of Gaddar 55 Gaddar against Hegemony58
Against Religious Hypocrisy 58
Change the Direction of the Capitalist Wheel 59
Implications for Social Work 62
Conclusion 64
Bibliography65

List of Abbreviations

BJP- Bharat Janta Party
CORE- Congress of Racial Equality
CPI- Communist Party of India
CRM- Civil Rights Movement
EEOC- Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
FSM-Free Speech Movement
JNM- Jana Natya Mandali
KKM- The Kabir Kala Manch
KKK- The Ku Klux Klan
LPG- Liquid Petroleum Gas
NCP- Nationalist Congress Party
RPI- Republican Party of India
RSS- Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
SDS-Students for a Democratic Society

Introduction
In today’s world, music is one of the most easily available sources of entertainment. Music can be looked at from several points of view; artist’s, the listener or the audience or the critic. The artist defines his music as, ‘A result of his emotional or physical conflict with the various forces of his personal relationships or problems, the problems of others, love, politics, education, careers etc. The listener looks for and tries to relate with the...
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