“Electronic Media” are those communication mediums which are based on electronic or electromechanical means of production and most often distinguished from print media. The primary electronic media sources familiar to the general public worldwide include radio, sound recordings, television, video recording and streaming internet content” . It denotes, “the main means of communicating with large number of people, especially television, radio, internet and satellite”. The electronic media have four basic functions; to inform, entertain, educate and influence the public opinion. The 20th century can be termed as the century of communication. The main mean of mass communication grew in succession as the century unfolded. Motion pictures arrived on scene in the first decade of this century. Regular radio broadcasts started in 1920s. Television entered the arena in 1940s, followed by cable television in 1950s, and satellite television in 1970s. Lastly the personal computer gave access to Internet in 1980s. It transformed the interconnected computer networks through World Wide Web by the 1990s.
Types of electronic media
Radio. In Pakistan like other developing countries, radio is the major source of information and entertainment due to its reach to the far flung areas and being relatively economical. Broadcasts carry news, analyses, commentaries and advertisements. This medium, however, is losing attraction in the public. Television. TV due to its potentials to offer a greater variety than other elements of electronic media has become the strongest form of media to perform all four functions, i.e. information, education, influence and entertainment. Internet. Internet is the latest addition into the elements of medium of electronic communication. It is swiftly bringing a historic shift in the dynamics and profile of the global information sector. The medium also provides instant access to the largest data bases and archives of information around the world. 1.6 The media and the ground realities
The most critical obligation of electronic media is to act as the custodian of the facts. There are certain realities and electronic media’s mindset and peculiarities, which to some extent are universal. The electronic media is a business, a billion dollar industry and thus its primary motive remains to earn money and not harmonize the society. Due to intense competition in the field of electronic media industry, media has to be competitive; to be “Exclusive and First”. The electronic media often looks for controversy, sensationalism and negative news to make headlines. In some cases the electronic media feels that it has the right to interpret what is good or bad for society using its own standards. The electronic Media was primarily and popularly used by our previous regimes as tool of self propaganda, the quality of news poor, unreliable and un-imaginative presentation of events and stories, ultimately losing the confidence of general public. Introduction of Satellite TV, Cable and Private Channels and Dish widened the scope of awareness of people. The Government of Pakistan realized the sensitivity and potential of private electronic media which could not be avoided through State controlled TV only. The governmental policies regarding electronic media took a different direction, to regulate this sector. 1.7 Pakistan electronic media regulatory authority
The objective of PEMRA was to regulate the electronic media i.e. Radio and TV. This was necessitated by the decision to allow a large number of private TV and radio channels. The Ordinance also gives a Code of Conduct for media broadcasters/ cable TV operators. “This Regulatory Body was established under the PEMRA Ordinance 2002, having the following goals in mind” i) Improve the standards of information, education and entertainment. ii) Enlarge the choice available to the people of Pakistan in the media for news, current affairs, religious knowledge, art, culture,...
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