Role of Language and Script in Raising the Religious Revivalism in Colonial Punjab aYESHA TABBASUM
The language played the significant role in the creation of identities among the major communities in pr-parathion India. The Urdu language had developed as a common language among all the communities and was, in the absence of a common religion the North-western Provinces and various part other parts of the subcontinent. I.H.Qureshi, History of the Pakistan,(BCC& Press Karachi, university of karachi2006) 807. Language Controversy between Urdu and Hindi
Although it was religion which was the key defining feature of Muslim identity, the Urdu language was an important symbol. For Hindus, except for the religious communities, the symbol of religion had to be played down to avoid alienating other major religious communities. However, despite linguistic pluralism, the Hindi language remained an important symbol in the construction of the Hindu identity for the Hindu community. Tariq Rahman, language and politics in Pakistan,(Karachi, oxford university press 1996) 60 As in colonial Punjab Hindu patshalas,which taught mantras and basic knowledge of the shastras, Muslims Quran schools, and Sikhs educational institutions which taught the sacred text of Sikhism, the Granth ,and the Gurumukhi Script of the Punjabi language used by Sikhs. The stand read spoken language of north India in the British period was referred to interchangeably as Urdu, Hindi. Paul Brass, language, religion and politics in north India (Cambridge: Cambridge university press, 1974), 129 But its was written in different script: as Urdu was written in Persian script while Hindu community used it in Hindi for general communication purposes was generally written in Devanagri, also known as Nagri.as Urdu was incorporated various Arabic and Persian words while Hindi drew on Sanskrit was cited by Hindu nationalists as “proof” that Islam was foreign religion in India and there language should be the language of country. Vickie Langhor, Colonial education system and spread of local religious movements; the cases of British Egypt and Punjab,(Cambridge university press,2005) 174 But it was the fact that Urdu language being used by Hindu community of north Indian. Till 1931 many Hindu in colonial Punjab were literate in Urdu instead of Hindi language. Before the partition of India, during the colonial Punjab Language and script become the major source of division among the major communities of as Hindus –Muslims and Sikhs. Ever since the beginning of the 11th century Northern India was remained under the Muslim rulers. During different periods different Muslims rulers ruled at different times and different dynasties spoke diverse languages as Afghans spoke Pushtu and Turks Turki and the Mughals spoke the Persian, Sikhs of the Punjab A Study of Confrontation and political mobilization, Dr Sarfraz Khawaja, (Islamabad, Pakistan: modern book dept, 1985) 41 As it was the fact that in the period of the later Mughals, Urdu and Persian both languages were the court languages. When British succeeded the subcontinent they continued the same languages as the court languages. Shan Muhammad, the growth of Muslim politics in india1900-1919 (New Delhi, shish publishing house, 1991) 35. These languages were understood, also spoke at large scale, but natives languages were also spoke by the native communities as Hindi, Punjabi Pahari Hindustani. In which Urdu and Hindi both languages were the mixture of native and foreign languages Two sides of one coin Hindi Urdu, or Urdu Hindi
As Hindi and Urdu were two names of one language script differentiate between them it called Urdu when it written in perso-Arabic script (both languages were associated with Muslim community) and when written in the Nagari script (associated with Hindu community); there were some lexical and phrasal differences. Yet the two names for one language were frequently used for the same language and its literature...
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