Every day, the number of people in the world is rising. Because of that phenomenon the rapid development forced to do to accommodate the total population such as urbanization. However, the unwell planning development was done that made our environment in trouble. The major factor of this happening because less understanding of surrounding environment and ecological aspect while planning the urbanization. One profession that closely related with designing the sustainable urbanization is landscape architects. The development of landscape urbanism theory and its implementation into the field of practice is outlined with particular focus on its position of redefining the role of landscape architect. Global movements of urbanization, increasing awareness of urban ecology and analysis of modern planning lead to the important responses that landscape urbanism applies to modern projects. Landscape urbanism holds a promising future in determining sustainable urban form. Continued long-term investment in applying the theory to practice will lead to a balance relationship similar to the requirement between landscape and urbanism.
2.1Definition of urbanization
Urbanization as defined by Paul Jenkins (2007) normally refers to the demographic process of shifting the balance of national population from ‘rural’ to ‘urban’ areas; urbanization rate indicates the proportion of the population living in urban areas at a given time; and urban growth rate is a measurement of the expansion of the number of inhabitants living in urban settlements. Meanwhile, Basudeb Bhatta (2010) defined urbanization as non-spatial and social process which refers to the changes of behavior and social relationships that occur in social dimensions as a result of people living in town and cities. Urbanization is also defined by United Nation (2005) as ‘movement of people from rural areas with population growth equating to urban migration’. According to New World Encyclopedia (retrieve 19 October 2011), urbanization is the growing number of people in a society living in urban areas, or cities. Urbanization means increased spatial scale and density of settlement as well as business and other activities in the area. Urban areas tend to attract businesses because of their large and dense population. This in turn draws more people to the area, working in a kind of circular process. The classic and most applicable definition of urbanization has been advance by Hope Tisdale (1942), who argues that urbanization is the process by which a growing section of the country’s population comes to live in relatively densely populated, relatively large towns and urban-type communities. Since the appearance of the first major studies about urbanization in the second half of the nineteenth century, the most influential study is that of Adna F. Weber (1899) whom wrote that the term urbanization has primarily been associated with numbers of people which migrate from countryside to the towns, about the rise of metropolis, that is to say, towns with a large population, about the differences in the growth of population in the towns, and in the countryside, and so forth. As the result of above definition about the term urbanization, it can be conclude that urbanization is the migration of people from rural area to town area which increase the number of population. As a result of the migration, their behavior, social activities, cultures and relationships might changes. It is related to the surrounding of the town which offers people more working opportunities.
Landscape means an area, as perceived by people, whose character is the result of the action in interaction of natural and human factors (Council of Europe, 2000). Due to this interaction landscape change is an unavoidable fact. Usually habitats have the ability to adapt themselves to changes caused by natural forces, but with respect to man bring...