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Role of Fungi in Biodeterioration

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Role of Fungi in Biodeterioration

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Zbornik Matice srpske za prirodne nauke / Proc. Nat. Sci, Matica Srpska Novi Sad, ¥ 116, 245—251, 2009 UDC 582.288:57.04]:725 DOI:10.2298/ZMSPN0916245L

M i l i c a V. L j a l j e v i ã G r b i ã J e l e n a B. V u k o j e v i ã Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden “Jevremovac", University of Belgrade, Takovska 43, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia

ROLE OF FUNGI IN BIODETERIORATION PROCESS OF STONE IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS ABSTRACT: Fungal ability in production of pigments and organic acids have crucial role in discoloration and degradation of different types of stone in cultural heritage objects. Additionally, stone objects may support novel communities of microorganisms that are active in biodeterioration process. This investigation focuses on mycological analyses of microbial biofilm from two important buildings, made of granite and sandstone, and which were heavily colonized by fungi. The 23 fungal taxa including filamentous microfungi and yeasts with specific distribution on sandstone and granite substrate were isolated. Melanized fungi from Dematiaceae (Deuteromycotina) were dominant. The identified microfungi cause discoloration, as well as mechanical exfoliation of building stone material that was analyzed through mechanical hyphae penetration and production of dark pigments and organic acids. KEY WORDS: biodegradation, cultural heritage, fungi

INTRODUCTION Numerous factors affect the stone durability. Stone surfaces are continuously exposed to physical, chemical and biological degradation. Physical, chemical, and biological agents act in co-association, ranging from synergistic to antagonistic, to the deterioration. Among biological agents miroorganisms have critical importance, in stone deterioration. They can cause various damages on the stone surface, such as: formation of biofilm, chemical reactions with substrate, physical penetration into the substrate as well as pigments production. Numerous studies have been dealing with establishing the role of...